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Biology Notes Cell organelles, Cilia and Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Components

by: Katie Notetaker

Biology Notes Cell organelles, Cilia and Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Components BIOL 1124

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > BIOL 1124 > Biology Notes Cell organelles Cilia and Flagella Cytoskeleton and Components
Katie Notetaker

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These are detailed notes with pictures and organized structure over Cell organelles, Cilia and Flagella, and the Cytoskeleton. All covered week 6.
Intro Biol: Molecule/Cell/Phys
Class Notes
Biology, cellular biology, cells
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1124 at University of Oklahoma taught by Welborn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Class Notes Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  Extensive network of membranous tubes & sacs that form Cisternae o Cisternae are internal compartment of the ER  ER is continuous with nuclear envelope ER  Rough ER – outer surface has attached ribosomes o Produces secretory proteins such as insulin, that is released into the blood stream o Secretory proteins are usually Glycoproteins:  Allow recognition by other cells o Secretory proteins are enclosed in a transport vesicle that buds off of the ER and may move to plasma membrane or another location within cell o Is a membrane factory of cells and proteins o Membranes are a complex of phospholipids and proteins o Builds membrane for the plasma membrane and other components of the endomembrane system  Smooth ER- many metabolic processes o Synthesis of lipids, like oils, steroids, and phospholipids for new membranes o Detoxification of harmful and waste molecules. Add hydroxyl groups (-OH) o Stores Calcium Ions (Ca ), which are needed for muscle contractions Golgi Apparatus  Functions in “shipping, receiving, and manufacturing”  Made of flattened membranous sacs called Cisternae  Polarity with Cis and Trans Face  Cisternae are compartments that allow specialized cell processes  Golgi receives vesicles containing products from ER and ships them to some other part of cell or to plasma membrane  ER products are received at cis face and modified as it travels and is then released at trans face  Golgi also manufactures Macromolecules, especially Polysaccharides Lysosomes  Membranous sacs of hydrolytic enzymes that cells use to digest macromolecules  Internal environment is acidic  Lysosomes and their proteins are made in ER and move to Golgi where they bud off at trans face  Used to “recycle” molecules within cells- they digest and release molecules into cytosol where they are used to make the molecule  Lysosomal Storage Diseases – caused by malfunction of lysosome enzyme o Tay-sachs Disease – non-functional lipid digestive enzyme Vacuoles – Membranous vesicle that functions in different ways depending on cell type  Example: Most plant cells have central vacuole that functions in: o Storage of organic compounds o Storage of water o Hold toxins Mitochondria  “power house” of the cell  Immediate source of energy is ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)  ATP is produced in Cellular Respiration  Cells can have several hundred to thousands mitochondria  Mitochondria divide “reproduce” within cells individually o Not associated with whole cell division  Are motile  Have double membrane  Matrix and intermembrane space define 2 different chemical environments  Mitochondria contain ribosomes and small circular DNA  Endosymbiotic Origin - ~ 2 billion years ago a large cell engulfed bacterial cell – father of modern cells Chloroplasts  Organelles in Plant Cells that connect energy from sun to chemical energy (photosynthesis)  Thylalcoid – contain chlorophyll, enzymes, & other molecules for photosynthesis  Stroma– contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes Cytoskeleton – extensive network of filaments throughout the cytoplasm  Function o Mechanical Support:  Give shell shape  Organize Structures within the cell  Cytoskeleton is not static  Filaments can be dismantled and reassembled as needed o Cell Motility  Movement of structures within cells, such as vesicles of Golgi  Movement of whole cell  Most cell motility involves motorproteins: large molecular “machines” Components of Cytoskeleton  Microtubules – thickest  Intermediate filaments – intermediate  Microfilaments – thinnest Microtubules – “small tubes” – hollow  Structure o Polymers of tubulin – protein dimer (=2 subunits) o Subunits are alpha and beta tubulin together  Function o Maintain cell shape o Cell motility (cilia and flagella) o Movement of Chromosomes o Organelle Movement o Centrosome – region of animal cell that is microtubule organizing center (MTOC)  Contains a pair of centrioles- microtubule structure that organizes o Cilia and Flagella  Flagella- “long tails” used for movement  Cilia- Many short microtubule projections on cell surface used for increased surface area and movement of motion of fluid  Flagella and Cilia have a “9 & 2” constitution  Each flagellum or cilium is anchored to the cell by a basal body:  A complex microtubule structure similar to a centriole [How does motion of Flagella and Cilia occur? o Dynein proteins move microtubule doublets against each other but because they are held together by cross-linking proteins, they can’t slide & so must bend] Microfilaments (AKA Actin filaments) o Structure  Made of actin (protein) subunits that form long polymers  Two strands of Actin filaments twisted together in a double helix  Can also form branching network filaments  In most animal cells, actin is the most abundant protein o Function  Maintain cell shape – 3-d network inside of plasma membrane called the Cortical Microfilament  Outer layer of cytoplasm is the cell cortex and has a gel-like consistency o Cell Motility  Muscle cells contract due to interaction between actin microfilaments and myosin; a motor protein  Myosin “legs” walk along actin filaments causing contractions


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