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Ed Psych 330: Introduction Week Notes

by: Emma Eiden

Ed Psych 330: Introduction Week Notes Ed Psy 330

Emma Eiden
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Ideas of Dewey, Throndike, Mamie and Kenneth Clarke, Leta Hollingsworth, and Skinner and how their theories changed education
Educational Psychology
Class Notes
ed, psy, 330, notes, Introduction, john, santrock




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview Emma Eiden Educational Psychology, Unit One Final Questions 1. Describe what educational psychology owes to Dewey and Thorndike. - John Dewey viewed children as active learners, emphasized the child’s adaptation to the environment, and pushed for competent education for all children when it wasn’t seen as important - E.L. Thorndike promoted the idea that educational psychology must have a scientific base and that measurement should be a central focus and initiated an emphasis on assessment and measurement of learning 2. State why you feel Mamie and Kenneth Clark, as well as Leta Hollingsworth, made important contributions to educational psychology. - Mamie and Keith Clark studied African-American children’s self- conceptions and identity which was important being African- American themselves. They saw the importance of this during the Civil Rights movement and were credited most famously with their experiments using dolls to study different children’s attitudes towards races. - Leta Hollingworth is best known for her work with exceptional children and was very important with educational psychology because she was the first to use the term “gifted” when talking about child developmental learning and those who scored high on IQ tests. 3. Discuss what Skinner emphasized in his approach and what he argued regarding the mental processes proposed by James and Dewey. - B.F. Skinner viewed psychology as a science of observable behavior and controlling conditions and saw it more as “programmable learning”. He did experiments now known as the “Skinner Box” and believed mainly in “Behaviorism” or the theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and those psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns. Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview 4. Explain what a "cognitive perspective" implies regarding a "behavioral analysis of instruction" and the types of concepts cognitive psychology examines. - Cognitive perspective implies the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and thinking." In the 1980s, Cognitive Psychology became very important because the thought of memory, thinking, and reasoning to help students learn and understand more complex topics after the idea of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills in the 1950s started the building boxes for this advanced cognitive learning. 5. Describe what current-day constructionism includes and the characteristics of a "constructivist" approach and how it differs from "direct instruction." - Constructive learning and constructive teachers is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information. Overall, meaning that the learners or the students are the makers of meaning and knowledge. It focuses a lot on critical thinking while also creating independent and motivated, self-driven learners. This differs from direct instruction because it is meant to help students work at their own pace and do what they need to do in order to be driven and become independent learns rather than working at the same pace at the same time with students that may not all be on the same learning level. Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, and verbalize the new knowledge. 6. Briefly describe the following areas of professional knowledge and skills, stating which ones you feel are most important and why. A. Subject matter competence - Demonstration of knowledge in a subject area: very important because when you are handling a specific area of study or need to know a certain mindset for a profession, it is important to know your stuff. B. Goal setting and instructional planning skills Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview - Curriculum planning and goal setting is a must if you want to manage and maintain a healthy, continuous education pulse. It is important to set goals for not only yourself but others because it shows everyone involved that you are motivated and dedicated to that subject or topic. C. Developmentally approaching teaching practices - Developing new techniques and teaching practices is something that a good teacher can experiment with but if something is working in the classroom and the students seem to be working diligently, then why change a good thing? D. Classroom management skills - Classroom management means that everyone is working towards one goal: furthering their education and bettering themselves. If everyone is happy and the classroom is able to be maintained, then a day and the planned curriculum can go forward as planned and everything else can flow smoothly. E. Motivational skills - When a teacher is motivated by the course work, it can rub off on their students and help students become more interested in bettering themselves on their own time and work towards being self-driven individuals. Motivation is key if a teacher hopes for lesson plans and the school year to move forward in a timely and organized fashion. F. Communication skills - Communication is the classroom is very crucial because if a teacher is not able to get messages across to their students, then there is no way that a classroom can go slowly nor can lesson plans be followed through with. Communication is one of the most important things present in any classroom. G. Paying attention to individual variations - If a teacher is able pay attention to the needs and wants of all their students then the teacher will be able to communicate and overall conquer any problems that they may face in the classroom. H. Working effectively with students from culturally diverse backgrounds. Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview - A teacher in my opinion is still always a student because they do not know everything that there is to be known. Even teachers can learn from their students of difference cultural and diversity background and I believe that bringing all aspects of the world into the classroom is important so that students and see what others around the world see and get interested in something that may be completely foreign, new, or strange to them. I. Assessment skills - If a teacher can see that a student is willing to learn and has the ability to take in the information, then all students, all people should be given a chance at an education. Assessment of people is important in any classroom. J. Technological skills - Technology is forever growing and expanding so I think that a teacher’s knowledge should be as well of this technological world that we live in. It is important to integrate technology into a student’s curriculum because it can make them more interested since it is something they deal with every day and something they already feel comfortable with operating. 7. List the characteristics reported by students in survey research as the most important that teachers have, and what students report as the characteristics of their least effective teachers. - Effective: Have a good sense of humor, make the class interesting, have knowledge of their subjects, explain things clearly, spend time to help students, are fair to their students, treat students like adults, relate well to students, are considerate of student’s feelings, don’t show favoritism towards students - Less-Effective: Are dull or have a boring class, don’t explain things clearly, show favoritism towards students, have a poor attitude, expect too much from their students, don’t relate to their students, give too much homework, are too strict, don’t give help or individual attention, lack control 8. Describe why it is important for teachers to be committed and motivated. - When a teacher is committed and motivated, it helps students also get excited about course material and stay focused on the topics at hand. When a teacher sets high goals for themselves, Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview students will be able to follow once they see a good influence acting out in front of them and successfully promoting students’ motivation to learn as well. Overall, when teachers communicate well, have a good attitude, invest their time and enjoy into their lessons, and care about their students, they bring a positive enthusiasm into the classroom. 9. Explain the basic nature, strengths, and limitations of each of the following research methods: A. Observation (including the three subtypes) - Laboratory, Naturalistic Observation, Participant Observation - Research draws information from what they view in controlled group settings: can see how things play out as how they are naturally meant to, but can show bias and have interruptions as well as possibly violate basic ethics. B. Interviews and questionnaires - Asking questions and getting answers from people or large groups: get short, simple answers that can draw conclusions and support major theories, but questions or answers can be biased and directed in a way that may seem subjective or favored in one direction over the other. C. Standardized tests - Tests administrated and scored in a consistent “standard” fashion. Basically, tests given in the same way in the same fashions and graded the same way for everyone: this is good for students that are all taking the same courses such as AP and college courses and measuring students’ learning on a national scale, however it is not effective in that it is expecting all students to be able to learn in the same way and show the knowledge they took in and interrupt that in the same way as every other people shown this information. The information leads itself to unequal resource and funding distribution. D. Case studies - A case study is a descriptive, exploratory or explanatory analysis of a person, group or event: case studies bring mixed information and can bring to the table may results which is good for research because it can keep a topic more open, with more room for interruption as well benefit from the prior development of theoretical propositions, but can lead to results that are over- Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview generalized and conclusions can be made from findings that are too broad. E. Ethnographic studies - Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures: the results from these studies can report on the meanings in life in other cultures. Ethnography records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations using concepts that avoid casual explanations. Ethics violations can be a big problem when dealing with these types of studies and findings must reflect positively when conducting research, teaching, application, and dissemination of results. F. Correlational research - In statistics, dependence is any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data. Correlation refers to any of a broad class of statistical relationships involving dependence: this is convenient for any large amounts of data that needs to be measured and recognized as a whole, but can over generalize and cause more problems if the results researchers are seeking needs to have a more specific conclusion. Overall, it measures the strength between two variables, but does not establish causal relation. 10. Know what accountability is and which research method plays an important role in accountability. - Accountability is the degree to which someone is responsible for actions, verdicts, decisions, and more. Ethnographical studies, Correlational Research, and Observations are very important when looking at accountability. 11. Distinguish between a laboratory experiment and a field experiment. - Laboratory experiments= something planned and scheduled with controlled conditions that test the hypothesis - Field experiments= uncontrolled environment with an uncontrolled outcome 12. Differentiate between the concepts of internal validity and external validity and how they relate to a laboratory experiment and a field experiment. Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview - Internal Validity is a scientific concept that addresses the relationship between two variables. It refers to the extent that a study can rule out or make unlikely alternate explanations of the results. This would work in a field experiment because it is looking at the big picture of something and making sure that it is followed through on a large scale, which would be found in field experiments. External validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized or extended to others. This would be something that would apply to more of a laboratory experiment because it seems very selective towards one group for the study, maybe only a sample that is representative enough that the research might think it can be extended to example a lot of people. 13. Explain the concept of the correlation coefficient, including the meaning of the "sign" and distance of the coefficient from zero. - This is a measure of the direction (positive or negative) and extent (range of a correlation coefficient is from -1 to +1) of the relationship between two sets of scores. For example: scores with a positive correlation coefficient go up and down together (as with smoking and cancer). A negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one score increases, the other score decreases (as in the relationship between self-esteem and depression; as self-esteem increases, the rate of depression decreases). 14. Describe the nature and importance of experimental research, including the types of variables and groups the method involves. - Independent variable: the manipulated, influenced experimental factor - Dependent variable: the factor that is measured by the experiment - Control group: a comparison group, no manipulation - Experimental group: the group whose experience is manipulation - Random Assignment: Participants are assigned by chance 15. Explain the importance of random assignment. - Random assignment is important because when participants are chosen randomly, it gives the researchers resources to many different viewpoints and options for their research. Research findings are diverse and completely unpredictable. 16. Discuss the three types of research teachers might use to evaluate specific programs or teaching methods. Educational Psychology: Topic One Overview - Program Evaluation: Designed to make decisions about a particular program - Action Research: Used to solve a particular classroom or school problem - Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teachings 17. State why you feel research is important in educational settings. - Research is important because it is based on the scientific method which makes researchers conceptualize the problem, collect their data, draw conclusions from their findings, and revise research conclusions and theory. It also makes people come up with a theory and hypothesis. Mostly, the scientific research approach in an educational setting is objective, systematic, and testable.


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