Ed Pys 330: Week 2
Ed Pys 330: Week 2 Ed Psy 330
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Popular in Education Psychology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development Emma Eiden Educational Psychology, Topic Two Final Questions 1. Explain what the term development means. - Development the process of starting to experience or suffer from an ailment or feeling. More specifically, developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. 2. Discuss three developmental issues, giving a clear picture of what each side says in each issue. Give a concluding statement of where you stand on each issue. - Maturation and Experience (Nature vs Nurture) is related to whether heredity or the environment most impacts human psychological development. Maturation is the orderly sequence of changes dictated by the child’s genetic blueprints. It is based on the idea that people learn and develop based on their home lives and what their surroundings are during early development. - Continuity and Discontinuity: Continuity refers to the principle of perceptual organization that states people have a tendency to group stimuli into continuous lines and patterns. Discontinuity refers to withdrawal and the mental disorder that follows the cessation of use or reduction in intake of a psychoactive substance that had been regularly used to induce a state of intoxication. - Early and Later Experiences: the early-later experience issue focuses on the degree to which early experiences (especially in infancy and/or early childhood) or later experiences are the key determinants of development. Based on the idea that the events that happen early in development are very important in child development later. 3. Define what "developmentally appropriate" teaching is, and state the levels of difficulty that developmentally appropriate teaching attempts to achieve. - Knowing about child development and learning: knowing what is typical at each age and stage of early development - Knowing what is individually appropriate: looking at what a specific child and their behavior and teach the viewer and teach them how to care for each child individually Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development - Knowing what is culturally important: getting to know a child’s family, and make an effort to learn about their values, expectations, and factors that shape their lives at home and in the communities 4. State what a "critical period" is and what evidence from neuroscience shows regarding this concept. - The critical period according to Piaget is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful. 5. Summarize five points that can be made concerning the implications of research on the brain for education. - Allow the brain to experience the content; the brain remembers things better if it has time to process things that it has experienced - Create connections between different parts of the brain - Use a student’s prior knowledge - Relate content to students’ lives 6. Describe the four major aspects of maturation. - Assimilation: assimilation is part of the adaptation process. The process of accommodation involves altering one's existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process. - Accommodation: the process of changing internal mental structures to provide consistency with external reality - Equilibration: to learn (something) so that it is fully understood and can be used - Schemata: describes an organized pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them. It is also described as a mental structure of preconceived ideas, a framework representing some aspect of the world, or a system of organizing and perceiving new information. 7. Explain the five major characteristics of stages. - Stages of development are different between each child even though they may show the same signs of development - Stages show little change and slow growth periods - Change occurs rapidly between stages. - Change due to maturation occurs about the same age in all people, so most children of a given age will be in about the same stage. Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development - The order of changes is invariant. Everyone goes through the changes in the same order, and nobody ever skips a stage. 8. List and briefly define the five cognitive functions in Piaget's theory. - The Sensorimotor Stage: sensory experiences and simple motor responses cause by sensory stimuli - The Preoperational Stage: learn through seeing and playing pretend - The Concrete Stage: gain better understanding of mental concepts, but still cannot fully understand more complex and abstract logic - The Formal Concrete Stage: increase gain in logic and use reasoning in understanding 9. Describe the cognitive abilities that develop in each of the four stages of development proposed by Piaget. - The Sensorimotor Stage: infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grasping, and listening) to though they cannot be seen or heard - The Preoperational Stage: ages from 2-7 where kids learn though playing pretend but still struggle with logic and understanding the point of view of another person. - The Concrete Operational Stage: ages 7-11 where children gain a better understanding of mental concepts but still struggle with abstract thought and hypothetical situations. This age group is good at using inductive logic such as using a specific experience to learn a general principal. - The Formal Concrete Stage: as the final stage of Piaget’s theory, children have an increase gain in logic and use deductive reasoning with an understanding of abstract ideas. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage. 10. Explain the concept of class inclusion and state the stage in which it first appears. - Class inclusion is the relation between two classes in which all members of one class are included in the other. Example: “All humans are animals”. This occurs in the Concrete Operational Stage of Piaget’s theory. 11. Explain what an operation is in Piaget's theory, and state the stage in which operations first appear. Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development - To Piaget, operation is the process of working something out of your head. For example, young children like to act out and try things out in the real world, to work things out (like counting on their fingers). This can happen as young as the sensorimotor stage in toddlers. 12. Describe the "best practices" for working with students in each of the four stages of Piaget's theory. - Sensorimotor Stage: begin to make use of imitation, memory, and thought; move from reflex actions to goal-directed activities; and begin to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden - Preoperational Stage: teaching children to gradually develop the use of language and the ability to think in symbolic form; help students think logically in one direction - Concrete Operational Stage: help student solve concrete, hands-on problems with logic; teach understanding reversibility; and help students be able to solve the laws on conservation and the ability to classify and seriate - Formal Concrete Operational Stage: teach more material with scientific thinking; teach more abstract problems in a logical fashion; and show students how to become more involved and developed in social issues and identity 13. Discuss the contributions Piaget made to developmental psychology and the criticisms of Piaget's theory. - Piaget made many contributions to the psychology of classroom learning. One is his constructivism, the theory that states that human beings acquire knowledge and moral values by constructing them from the inside in interaction with the environment, rather than by internalizing them directly from the environment. Children learn through actively exploring their environment through their senses, vision, hearing, and touch. Until the time between the ages of 8-12 months of age the infant does not understand that objects exist even if they cannot be seen. Criticisms main argument was that Piaget described tasks with confusing and abstract terms and using overly difficult tasks. Basically Piaget under estimated children's abilities. Researchers have found that young children are capable and can succeed on simpler forms of tasks requiring the same skills. Lastly, his efforts to teach children developmentally advanced concepts would be unsuccessful. 14. Explain the theory of cognitive development devised by Vygotsky, paying particular attention to his concepts of the dialogue, inner speech and private speech, and the zone of proximal development. Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development - Vygotsky stresses language dialogue. It is primarily through their speech that adults are assumed to transmit to children the rich body of knowledge that exists in their culture. As learning processes, the child’s own language comes to help as his or her primary tool of intellectual transformation. Vygotsky described inner speech as being qualitatively different from normal (external) speech. The zone of proximal development is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help. Vygotsky stated that a child follows an adult's example and gradually develops the ability to do certain tasks without help. 15. Describe the "best practices" for applying Vygotsky to the classroom. - Assume the child (learner) is competent - Know the child (learner) - Share an interest in the task at hand with the child (learner) - Follow the child's (learner's) lead - Capitalize on uncertainty - Effective caregivers engage in regulating dialogue with children almost naturally. A key phenomenon of such interactions is that caregivers maintain the dialogue just above the level where children can perform activities independently. As children learn, adults change the nature of their dialogue so that they continue to support the child but also give the child increasing responsibility for the task. (example: letting a child complete a puzzle all on their own) 16. Compare and contrast the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. - Piaget: theory about child development, a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence and talks about the nature of knowledge and how humans come to gradually acquire it, construct it, and use it. Cognitive development is the center of a human organism and language is contingent on cognitive development. The nature of intelligence is described through Piaget’s four stages from infancy and toddler age to full maturity. - Vygotsky: theory about how social interactions help shape how someone is developed and social learning precedes development. “Every function appears in a child’s cultural development twice: once on a social level and then again on an individual level”. Until a child can learn to use their mental tools, their learning is largely controlled by the environment. 17. Explain why Vygotsky is considered important and what his critics say. Topic Two: Cognitive and Language Development - The work of Lev Vygotsky has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. Unlike Piaget, there is no mention of stages but instead an underlying assumption that children function and think in similar ways throughout their life. 18. Define language. - The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way. 19. Describe the five systems of rules involved in language. - Phonological: systematic organized sounds in language - Semantics: the study of meaning in language - Syntax: the study of the principal and processes by which sentences are constructed in a particular language - Pragmatism: rejection of the idea that the function of thought is to describe, represent, or mirror reality. - Prosody: the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech - Idiosyncrasy: an unusual feature of a person or habit. Also can mean “quirk”. 20. Discuss the role of biological and environmental influences on language. - Human language has the properties of productivity, recursively, and displacement, and relies on social convention and learning. There are many influences from a child’s surroundings that can help shape the way they understand language such as the dialect from where they grow up to the accents and pronunciations of vowels. The way that a person stresses the sounds of the words are very noticeable to children at a young age because they model the way they speak and act based on what they see and hear. A child’s biological standing on language is believed by some researchers that children are born with an innate biological device for understanding the principles and organization common to all languages.
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