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Ed Psy 330: Week 3

by: Emma Eiden

Ed Psy 330: Week 3 Ed Psy 330

Emma Eiden
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Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development
Educational Psychology
Class Notes
ed, psy, 330, social, Contexts, and, socioeconomic, developmental
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development Emma Eiden Educational Psychology, Topic Three Final Questions 1. Describe the five environmental systems in Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory. - “Microsystem”: the immediate surroundings of an individual. An example would be someone’s family, their peers, school, and people in their neighborhood - “Mesosystem”: the relation between the different microsystems or connections between contexts. Some examples would be the connections between family experiences and school experiences, school experiences to church experiences, and family to peer experiences. - “Exosystem”: the connection between a social setting in which an individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context. For example, a wife or child’s experience at work may influence the husband/father experiences at work. - “Macrosystem”: the cultural in which an individual lives. Cultural means the ways of people which includes socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and poverty - “Chronosystem”: the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life of an individual as well as sociohistorical circumstances. For example, divorce is a transition and what at first might seem like a chaotic new lifetime calms down with time. Something like divorce does not seem like as big of a problem in two years’ time 2. Discuss the strategies for educating children based on Bronfenbrenner's theory. - Bronfenbrenner’s theory provides frameworks for examining social contexts on both micro and macro levels, bridging the gap between behaviors that focus on small settings and anthropological theories on a larger scale. Some strategies include: paying attention to the connection between schools and families with formal and informal outreach and recognizing the importance of community, socioeconomic status, and culture in a child’s development. 3. State what happens in each of the stages of Erikson's theory, and state whether you feel the last three have any relevance for education and why. - Trust versus mistrust: this happens the year after the child’s birth where the significant other is seen as the primary caregiver, or the Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development person that is the most responsible for caring for the child that this time. The main concept is if a child’s basic needs of happiness and warmth are meant, they trust others and if not and they are mistreated, they will not trust others. - Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt: (children around 1-2) The child require more independence and the ability for children to play without help and explore things on their own. If this is successful, child will be more curious - Initiative versus Guilt: (children ages 3-5) Child some do activities that they chose all on their own and give them the motivation of “I can start things on my own”. During this stage, it is expected that child will not finish what they start but should still be expected to help with things like picking up toys and cleaning up the messes they make. In terms of school, these will be the children that will be more self- motivated - Industry versus Inferiority: During this stage, the significant other is now seen as school and the child should be encourages finishing all tasks that they start independently which help students set goals and work to achieve them. Teaching should be tailored to individuals to maximize the probability of success in a task, activities should not be too difficult so that students can accomplish them on their own, the ability level and learning style should be taken into account, and competition should be minimal because that leads to winners and losers and the students that lose will lack imitative - Identity versus Identity Confusion: (adolescents will represent this stage) Peers become the significant other and role models become a very big part of influence. This stage also includes identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement. This stage, it becomes important that middle and high schools have a strong, well-developed career-counseling component. 4. Describe Erikson's concept of the significant other. - Erikson sees the “significant other” as the main influence of a child during their development. Significant others range from their parents to be they are just in contact with like their friends and neighbors. Significant others can even mean the role models and the people that child look up to during their main years of education and academic development. 5. List and describe the significant other in each of the first five stages of Erikson's theory. Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development - Trust versus Mistrust: significant other is seen as the individual or group that is giving the child the most care, the caregiver. Could be a parent, grandparent, even a day care facility or nanny - Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt: significant other is concerned to be primarily the family or could be a nanny or day care facility - Initiative versus guilt: significant other includes the home, day cares, and preschools - Industry versus Inferiority: significant other is now seen as school - Identity versus Identity Confusion: peers become the significant other in this stage 6. State four recommendations for working in the schools with children in the stage of industry vs. inferiority. - Teaching should be tailored to individuals and their learning levels and the activities should not be too difficult so that the student will not be able to accomplish it. At the same time, the tasks should make students use effort considering which students work on different levels and how to adjust activities from there. Not all students should be expected to perform the same tasks when learning a concept. Mostly, there should not be competition or just minimal amount because where there is competition there are winners and losers and the students that are seen as the “losers” will lack initiative. 7. Discuss the "best practices" for educating children based on Erikson's theory. - Encourage initiative in young children. Children in this stage love to play so they should be encouraged to explore and play on their own in a safe environment. Children should also be given something to help care for like a plant or seedling, maybe even a doll that has features of a real baby (ex: needing to feed it) - Promote industry in Elementary School. Teachers should be able to create an environment that promotes a child’s love for learning and becoming more self-motivated. Teachers should give student’s the experience and adventure of wanting to accomplish things they didn’t think that they could. Challenge students, but do not overwhelm them; make sure they are productive but do not be overall critical - Stimulate identity exploration in adolescence. Encourage students to look at things in their point of view and think and talk about things freely - Examine your life as a teacher through the lens of Erikson’s eight stages - Benefit from the characteristics of some of Erikson’s other stages 8. Describe the criticisms of Erikson's theory of development. Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development - There is rigidity to each of the stage, especially regarding the ages that are described in each group and some people see a child able to move through the stages rapidly and some even psychologically healthy child to move through them slowly. The order of the stages can be challenged as well. 9. List and describe the four types of parenting described by Baumrind, which type is associated with being more competent in a wide range of ethnic groups, as well as the exceptions to this finding. - Authoritarian parenting: restrictive and punitive, these parents make sure their children do what they say and respect them. “Do it my way, no discussion.” “Because I said so.” - Authoritative parenting: encourages children to be independent but also makes sure they are following their rules because they are doing what they feel is in the best interest of their children. Give and take is shown here. “Let’s talk about it and handle the situation so it can be dealt with differently next time.” - Neglectful parenting: this parenting style is seen as the parents not being very involved in the child’s life. They cannot answer questions like “It is late at night, do you know where your child is?” Children with neglectful parents tend to have poor self-control and do not handle independence well, and especially are not academically motivated. - Indulgent parenting: parents are highly involved in their child’s life but do not put many limitations or restrictions on their children. They do not discipline their children and let them get away with poor behavior. These children do not learn to control their own behavior and these parents do not take in account their child’s development as a whole. 10. Describe the best practices for forging school-family- community linkages. - Family Management: maintaining a structured and organized family environment such as a regulation of homework time, a bedtime, and assigned chores. Creating a family environment in which high expectations for achievement is very important - Parental Involvement and School-Family-Community Connections: getting parents involved in their child’s education. A low level of parent involvement in their child’s education is worrisome because it means it can be linked to a child’s low level of achievement. High involvement in school meetings, class meetings, parent-teacher conferences, and volunteering have shown a great deal in helping or hurting a child’s success in their education. Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development 11. Identify the five types of peer status and which type often has more serious adjustment problems. - Popular Children: frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers. Popular children give out reinforcements, maintain open lines of communications with their peers, are happy, act like themselves, have self-confidence, and some enthusiasm and concern for others. - Average Children: receive average numbers of both positive and negative nominations from their peers - Neglected Children: infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers - Rejected Children: infrequently nominated as someone’s best friend and are often actively disliked by their peers. Rejected children often have more serious adjustment problems than do neglected children. - Controversial Children: frequently nominated both as someone’s best friend and as someone that is disliked. 12. Describe the themes of developmentally appropriate education, and how these are exemplified in a "developmentally appropriate school" such as the Reggio Emilia approach. - Physical, cognitive, and socioeconomically domains of a child’s education are closely linked and can influence and be influenced by each other. Recognition of the connections across domains can be used to plan a child’s learning experiences. - Development occurs in a relatively orderly sequence with later abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired. Knowledge of development helps a teacher create a good learning environment - Individual variation characterizes children’s development. Each child has their own strengths and weaknesses, needs, and interests. Recognizing this variation is key is becoming a competent teacher - Development is influenced by multiple social and cultural contexts. Teachers need to understand sociocultural contexts like poverty and ethnicity because these factors affect a child’s development - Children are active learners and should be encouraged to construct an understanding of the world around them. Children contribute to their own learning and strive to make meaning out of their daily experiences - Development advances when children have opportunities to practice newly acquired skills as well as when they experience a challenge just beyond their present level of mastery. - Children develop best in the context of a community where they are safe and valued, their physical needs are met, and they feel psychologically secure. Children benefit greatly when they feel and Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development they know that their teachers truly want them to learn and genuinely want to help them learn and develop in a positive way. 13. Name the characteristics of high-quality Head Start programs and the effects of such programs. - In high-quality Head Start, parents and communities are involved in positive ways. Teachers are knowledgeable about their students’ development and use developmentally appropriate practices. There is a less drop-out rate and overall a great long-term beneficial future for the students involved because of the low drop-out rate, the ability to be enrolled in special education courses, and for the students that need to be supported by welfare. 14. Discuss the relationship between ethnic identity and positive outcomes for ethnic minority adolescents. - Ethnic identity: an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with attitudes and feelings related to that membership. Ethnic identity development includes self- categorization in, and psychological attachment toward, an ethnic group. Ethnic identity is characterized as part of one’s overarching self- concept. Development of ethnic identity is described as a process of the construction of identity over time. - First generation immigrants are likely to be secure with themselves and their culture and unlikely to change much. Second generations are more likely to think of themselves as “Americans” probably because they are granted full citizenship from birth. Second generations are likely to be linked to retention of their ethnic language and social networks. In the third generation, broad social factors may affect the extent to which members of the generation retain their ethnic identities. Good positive outcomes come when ethnic identity is linked with higher school engagement and lower aggression. 15. Recognize what happens to self-esteem during early adolescence, gender differences in this change, and why these differences may occur. - As children develop a sense of self and identity, they also develop a sense of morality which has important implications in the classroom. Self-esteem refers to an individual’s overall view of themselves, their self-worth, or their self-image. The self-esteem of both boys and girls declined during adolescence, but it declined considerably more for girls than boys. Variations in self-esteem have been linked with many aspects of development like depression in adolescents and early adulthood as well as adolescents with who have low self-esteem have Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development lower levels of mental health, physical health, and economic prospects as adults than adolescents with high self-esteem. 16. List and discuss the four identity statuses described by Marcia. - Identity diffusion: occurs when individuals have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments. Not only are they undecided about occupational and ideological choices, but they are also likely to show little interest in such matters. - Identity foreclosure: occurs when individuals have made a commitment but have not yet experienced a crisis. This occurs most often when parents hand down their commitments to their adolescents, more often in an authoritarian manner. - Identity moratorium: occurs when individuals are in the midst of a crisis, but their commitments are either absent or only vaguely defined. - Identity achievement: occurs when individuals have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment. 17. Describe how Kohlberg uses the term internalization and the three levels and six stages of moral reasoning in his theory. - Internalization: the developmental change from external controlled behavior to internal controlled behavior. - Stage One, Heteronomous Morality: children obey because adults tell them to obey. People base their moral decisions on fear of punishment. - Stage Two, Individualism, Purpose, and Exchange: Individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same. What is right involves equal exchange - Stage Three, Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity: individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis for moral judgments - Stage Four, Social Systems Morality: moral judgments are based on understanding of the social order, law, justice, and duty - Stage Five, Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights: individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law - Stage Six, Universal Ethnical Principals: the person has developed moral judgments that are based on universal human rights. When faced with a dilemma between law and conscience, a personal, individualized conscience is followed. 18. Discuss the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory, with particular attention to the concepts developed by Gilligan. Topic Three: Social Contexts and Socioeconomic Development - One criticism centers on the idea that moral thoughts do not always predict moral behavior. Kohlberg’s theory places too much emphasis on moral thinking and not enough on moral behavior. His theory is also too individualistic. Carol Gilligan describes that Kohlberg greatly underplayed the care perspective, what she thinks is because he was a male and most of his research was on males as he lived in a male- dominated society.


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