Ed Psy 330: Week 4
Ed Psy 330: Week 4 Ed Psy 330
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Popular in Education Psychology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Topic Four: Individual Variables Emma Eiden 1. State seven major assumptions of the psychometric perspective. - Human characteristics exist as traits - Traits are bipolar dimensions meaning traits can be viewed as existing as opposites such as sad-happy, pessimism-optimism, and unfriendly- friendly - Traits are useful in comparing people - Traits exist on a continuum and people vary as to where the traits they possess fall on the continuum. People may have traits extremes like extreme pessimism and extreme optimism, while other peoples’ traits fall between the extremes - Traits are quantifiable and the actual number of a trait a person possesses can be represented numerically. An extremely optimistic person may be represented with the number “10” and a pessimist with the number “1”. Someone that can be represented between the two might be given the number “6”. - Because traits are quantifiable, traits are easily measured - Traits are very stable over long periods of time: once positive, always a positive person 2. Explain how the formula for IQ works. - The intelligence quotient or “IQ” refers to a person’s mental age divided by their chronological age, which is then multiplied by 100. Written out like MA/CAx100. 3. Describe the concept of the normal distribution. - Normal distribution is a symmetrical distribution, with a majority of scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and some of them being towards the extremes of that range. The normal distribution is useful because of the central limit which means that under mild conditions, the mean of many random variables independently drawn from the same distribution is distributed approximately normally, irrespective of the form of the original distribution: physical quantities that are expected to be the sum of many independent processes (such as measurement errors) often have a distribution very close to the normal. 4. Describe the drawbacks of group intelligence tests. - When a test in given to a large group, the examiner cannot measure the student’s stress level or their anxiety levels, establish rapport, and so on. Also in large group testing situations, the students may not Topic Four: Individual Variables completely understand the instructions or may become distracted by the other students in the room. 5. Discuss the "best practices" strategies for interpreting intelligence test scores. - Avoid unwarranted stereotypes and negative expectations about students based on their IQ scores: An IQ test should always be considered a measure of current performance and not of what the student’s fixed potential may be. Maturational changes and an enriched environment can advance a student’s intelligence, thus helping improve their IQ scores. - Don’t use IQ tests as the main or sole characteristic of competence: A high IQ test in not the ultimate measure of human value. Teachers should also measure a student’s intelligence based on verbal skills while also keeping in mind a child’s strengths and weaknesses in different areas of intelligence. - Especially be cautious in interpreting the meaningfulness of an overall IQ score: Many educational psychologists say that it is important to consider the student’s strengths and weaknesses in different areas of intelligence instead of their overall IQ. 6. Compare Spearman's view of intelligence to that of Wechsler. - Charles Spearman was a pioneer of factor analysis that did his seminal work on models for human intelligence including his theories about cognitive test scores and coming up with the term “g factor”. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient or Spearman’s rho is a nonparmetric measure of statistical dependence of two variables. It assesses how well the relationship between two variables can be described using a monotonic function. If there are no repeated data values, a perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or −1 occurs when each of the variables is a perfect monotone function of the other. - Wechsler is well-known for his developments of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Wechsler emphasized that factors other than intellectual ability are involved in intelligent behavior. He assigned an arbitrary value of 100 to the mean intelligence and added or subtracted another 15 points for each standard deviation above or below the mean the subject was and divided the concept of intelligence into two main areas: verbal and performance (non-verbal) scales, each evaluated with different subtests. 7. Explain Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of intelligence. Topic Four: Individual Variables - Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of intelligence describes that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg’s theory comprises three parts: componential, experiential, and contextual/practical intelligence. The componential dimensional is the ability to use intelligence for problem solving in specific situations where there is one right answer. It includes such skills as being able to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast. Experiential dimension is also called “creative intelligence” because it concerns practice solving problems in specific areas. Some people are better in classes than others making this differ from componential intelligence because a student strong in the componential area might do well in classes that require memorization and the ability to analyze information, but the student might not be particularly creative. A highly creative person might not be good at remembering things. Some people may be strong in both or weak in both. Practical intelligence concerns a person's application of familiarity with the external world to everyday tasks. Overall, Sternberg makes a point about what he calls “successful intelligence” which is the ability of a person to adapt, shape, and selects environments to accomplish their own goals and that of society. When teaching in the classroom, Sternberg feels tasks should be designed around the three areas. 8. Describe each of the eight "frames of mind" proposed by Gardner. - Verbal Skills: related to words and language- written and spoken; the ability to think in words and use language to express meaning like authors, speakers, and journals. This dominates most modern Western educational systems - Mathematical Skills: often thought of as “scientific thinking” because this intelligence deals with inductive and deductive reasoning and thinking, numbers, and the recognition of patterns; the ability to carry out mathematical operations like engineers, scientists, and accountants. - Spatial Skills: this intelligence relies on the sense of sight and the ability to visualize objects. This also includes the ability to create internal mental images and pictures; the ability to think three- dimensionally like sailors, artists, and architects - Bodily-kinesthetic Skills: related to physical movement and the knowing of the body including the brain’s motor cortex which controls bodily motion; the ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept (example: dancers, athletes, and surgeons) - Musical Skills: based on the recognition of tonal patterns including various environmental sounds and have the sensitivity to beats and rhythm; a sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone like composers, musicians, and music therapists. Topic Four: Individual Variables - Intrapersonal Skills: the intelligence relates to the inner states of being, self-reflection, metacognition (thinking about thinking), and awareness of spiritual realities; the ability to understand oneself and effectively direct ones’ life (example: theologians and therapists) - Interpersonal Skills: this intelligence operates primarily through person-to-person relationships and communication; the ability to understand and effectively interact with others (example: successful teachers and mental health professionals) - Naturalistic Skills: the ability to recognize and classify plants, minerals, and animals; the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems like ecologists, farmers, landscapers, and botanists. 9. Discuss how the Key School is related to Gardner's theory of intelligence. - The Key School is a K-6 elementary school where students are involved in a range of activities with a range of skills that closely correlate with Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind. Every day each student is exposed to materials designed to stimulate a range of human abilities which include art, music, language skills, physical games, and mathematics. The school’s goal is to allow students to discover their natural curiosity and talents, and then let them explore their domains. Gardner explains that if teachers give their students the opportunities to use their bodies, imaginations, and their difference senses, most of the students will finals that they are good at something. Even student who are not outstanding in any single area of study will find they have many relative strengths. 10. Discuss the best practices for implementing Gardner's multiple intelligences. - Verbal Skills: read to children and let children read to you as well as take visits to libraries and bookstores. Have children summarize a story you read to them. - Mathematic Skills: Play games that involve logic and help students think about and construct an understanding of numbers. Take children on field trips to computer labs, electronics exhibits, and science museums. - Spatial Skills: have a variety of creative materials for children to use, take children to art museums and go on walks with children. Ask them to draw maps of their experiences. - Bodily-kinesthetic Skills: give children the chance to be active and be engaged in physical activity. Let children play outdoors, go to the park with them, and encourage them to participate in dance activities. Topic Four: Individual Variables - Musical Skills: let children play musical instruments or sing and take children to concerts - Intrapersonal Skills: encourage children to have hobbies and interests and give them sensitive feedback. Let them keep a journal or a scrapbook or their ideas and experiences. - Interpersonal Skills: encourage children to work in groups and help them to develop communication skills while also providing children group games to play - Naturalist Skills: create naturalist learning center in the classroom, engage children in outdoor naturalist activities such as taking children on a nature walk. 11. Explain the criticisms of "multiple intelligences." - Some critics conclude that the research base to support these theories have not yet developed yet. Some argue that Gardner’s classification seems arbitrary, for example if musical skills represent a type of intelligence, why don’t we also refer to chess intelligence, fighting intelligence, and so forth. 12. Discuss what advocates of "general intelligence" point to in their defense and some of the problems with the concept (e.g., with regard to job success and the IQ/achievement relationship over time). - Intelligence tests are moderately correlated with job performance. Individuals with higher scores on tests designed to measure general intelligence tend to get higher-paying, more prestigious jobs. However, general IQ tests predict only about ¼ of the variable in job success, with most variable being attributable to other factors such as motivation and education. Advocates of the concept of general intelligence point its success in predicting school and job success. Scores on tests of general intelligence are substantially correlated with school grades and achievement tests performance, both at the time of the test and years later. 13. Explain the Flynn Effect and why it may have occurred. - The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world. The biggest effects occur when large groups are deprived of formal education for an extended period because it results in lower intelligence. Topic Four: Individual Variables 14. Explain why it is important to understand that the difference between the intelligence test scores of White and minority children is based on averages. - In the United States, children from black and Latino families score below children from white families on standardized intelligence tests. On average, black schoolchildren score 10 to 15 points lower on these tests than white children, but these are average scores because 15 to 25% of black children score higher than half of white schoolchildren do, and many white score lower than most black students. The reason is that the distribution of score for black students and white overlap. 15. Provide an explanation of the concept of stereotype threat and the results of research on the phenomenon. - The standards for early tests were almost exclusively based on white, middle-class status children. Some of the items were obviously culturally biased. The stereotype threat is the anxiety that tone’s behavior might confirm a negative stereotype about their “group” they belong in. 16. Discuss the purpose of culture-fair tests and why they are difficult to develop. - Culture-fair tests are tests of intelligence that are intended to be free of cultural bias. It is difficult to create them however because most tests tend to reflect what the dominant culture thinks is important and if the tests have time limits, that will bias the tests against groups not concerned with time. Because of the large amount of difficulties creating culture-fair tests, professors concluded that there are no culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests. 17. Describe tracking and its variations. - Tracking or Between-Class Ability Grouping is the act of grouping students based on their ability or achievement. A typical between-class grouping involves dividing students in a college preparatory tack and a general track. Another form of tracking takes place when a student’s abilities in difference subject areas are taken into track math class and a middle-track English class. 18. Discuss what critics of tracking argue, and the results of research on tracking. - Critics argue that tracking stigmatizes students who are consigned to low-track classes. Some also stress that tracking is used to segregate students according to ethnicity and socioeconomic status because Topic Four: Individual Variables higher tacks have fewer students from ethnic minority and impoverished backgrounds. Researchers have found that tracking is harmful to the achievement of low-track students but seem to be beneficial to high-track students. Overalls, researchers have found that students who are “tracked-up” or who are more exposed to a harder curriculum learn more than the same ability students who are “tracked-down” and are given a less challenging education. 19. Describe what the textbook concludes with regard to research on within-class ability grouping. - Within-class Ability Grouping is placing students in two or three groups within a class to take into account difference in the student’s abilities. This is a very common method in elementary and secondary education. The subject area most often involved is reading and math. Although many elementary school teachers use a form of within-class ability grouping, there is no clear research to support for using this strategy. 20. Differentiate between the "reflective" and "impulsive" thinking styles, and discuss how students with a "deep" as opposed to a "surface" style differ. - Impulsive/reflective thinking styles, also called conceptual tempo refer to involving a student’s tendency either to act quickly and impulsively or to take more time response and reflect on the accuracy of their answer. Research shows the impulsive students tend to make more mistakes than reflective students. Also, reflective students are more likely to do well on tasks like remembering structured information, reading comprehension, problem solving/decision making, and understanding text interpretation. Reflective students are more likely to set their own goals and concentrate on relevant information. Overall, reflective students do better in school than impulsive students. 21. List and describe the each of the Big 5 personality types. - Openness: interested in a variety or routine, independent or conforming, and imaginative or practical - Conscientiousness: organized or disorganized, careful or careless, and disciplined or impulsive - Extraversion: sociable or retiring, fun-loving or somber, affectionate or reserved - Agreeableness: softhearted or ruthless, trusting or suspicious, helpful or uncooperative - Emotional Stability (Neuroticism): calm or anxious, secure or insecure, and self-satisfied or self-pitying Topic Four: Individual Variables 22. State and define the characteristics of the three temperaments proposed by Thomas and Chess, and define the term itself. - Temperament is a person’s behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding. It can be defined by the following: - An easy child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences - A difficult child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change - A slow-to-warm-up child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood 23. Describe which type of temperament may place a child at risk for problems and what these problems entail. - A difficult temperament or a temperament that lacks control can place a student in risk for problems. There are some characteristics that describe the structures of temperament dimensions such as: - Extraversion/surgency or positive anticipation, impulsivity, activity level, and sensation seeking - Negative affectivity consists of fear, frustrations, sadness, and discomfort which is bad because these children are stressed often and cry easily - Effortful control (self-regulation) involves attentional focusing and shifting, inhibitory control, perceptual sensitivity, and low-intensity pleasure. Children low on effortful control are often unable to control their arousal and they become easily agitated and intensely emotional