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Ed Psy 330: Week 5

by: Emma Eiden

Ed Psy 330: Week 5 Ed Psy 330

Emma Eiden
GPA 3.88

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Learners who are Exceptional
Educational Psychology
Class Notes
ed, psy, 330, learners, who, are, exceptional
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional Emma Eiden 1. State the defining characteristics of a learning disability. - A learning disability refers to a child that has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language and the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking reading writing and spelling. A learning disability also may involve difficulty doing mathematics. To be classified as a learning disability, the learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disorders; or due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages. 2. List and describe the three most common problems that characterize children with a learning disability. - The three most common academic areas that children struggle with because they have a learning disability have problems in math, reading, and writing. - Dyslexia- individuals have an impairment with their ability to read and spell - Dysgraphia- children write very slowly and their writing products may be visually illegible, and they may make numerous spelling errors because of their inability to match up sounds and letters - Dyscalculia- involves difficulty with math computation. Math problems and numbers can easily get “mixed up”. 3. Describe the "best practices" for working with children who have learning disabilities. - Take the needs of the child with a learning disability into account during instructional time: clearly state the objective of the lesson, explain things orally, and use concrete examples to illustrate concepts - Provide accommodations for testing and assignments: change the academic environment so that children can demonstrate what they know. - Make modifications: encourage children’s confidence and success. Asking a child with dyslexia to give an oral report while other children give written reports is an example of modification. - Improve organizational and study skills: projects should be broken down into their elements, with steps and due dates for each part because typically children with learning disabilities do not do well with self- organization and planning - Work with reading and writing skills: help children work on the skills that they struggle with the most so they can have more practice and improve - Challenge children with a learning disability to become independent and reach their full potential: teachers need to challenge students to be all that they can be. This helps them become responsible and independent on their own. Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional 4. State the defining characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and why children with the disorder are not usually classified until the elementary school years. - Attentional Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHA is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the characteristics: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Although signs of ADHA are often present in preschool years, children with ADHA are not usually classified until elementary years because the increase academic and social demands of formal schooling with the stricter standards for behavioral control, school are more likely to seek out and diagnosis this type of behavior as a disorder that can be treated with therapy and medication. 5. Describe the effects of stimulant medication when prescribed for ADHD. - Stimulant medication like Ritalin or Adderall is effective in improving the attention of many children with ADHD, but is usually does not improve their attention to the same level as children who do not have ADHD. Researchers have often that a combination of medication and behavior management alone, although not in all cases. Other drugs, such as the stimulant called mixed amphetamine salts extended release and the non- stimulant Strattera, are currently being studied. 6. Describe the "best practices" for working with children who have ADHD. - Monitor whether the child’s stimulant medication is working effectively - Repeat and simplify instructions about in-class and home-work assignments - Involve a special education resource teacher - State clear expectations and give the child immediate feedback - Use behavior management strategies, especially providing positive feedback for progress - Provide structure and teacher-direction: a structured learning environment benefits children with ADHD - Provide opportunities for students to get up and move around - Break assignments into shorter segments 7. State the basic definition of mental retardation. - Mental retardation is a condition with an onset before 18 that involves low intelligence, usually below 70 on a traditional individually administered intelligence test, and difficulty in adapting to everyday life. 8. List and describe the four levels of mental retardation based on levels of support. - Intermittent: supports are provided “as needed”. The individual may need episodic or short-term support during life-span transitions such as Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional job loss or an acute medical crisis. Supports may be low or high intensity when provided - Limited: supports are intense and relatively consistent over time. They are time-limited but not intermittent. They require fewer staff members and cost less than most-intense supporters. There supports likely will be needed for adaptation to the changes involved in the school-to-adult period - Extensive: Supports are characterized by regular involvement (daily) in at least some setting (like home or work) and are not time-limited (such as home living support). - Pervasive: supports are constant, very intense, and are provided across settings. They may be of a life-sustaining nature. There supports typically involve more staff members and intrusiveness than the other support categories. 9. List the ranges of mental retardation based on IQ. - Mild: IQ 55-70 - Moderate: IQ 40-54 - Severe: IQ 25-39 - Profound: IQ <25 (which is typically only 1%) 10. Describe the "best practices" for working with children who are mentally retarded. - Help children who are mentally retarded to practice making personal choices and engage in self-determination when possible. - Always keep in mind the child’s level of mental functioning: children who have mental retardation will be at a considerable lower level of mental functional than most other students in you class so if you start at one level of instruction, and the child is not responding effectively, move to a lower level. - Individualize your instructions to meet the child’s needs - As with other children with a disability, make sure that you give concrete examples of concepts: make you instructions clear and simple - Give these children opportunities to practice what they have learned: have them repeat steps a number of times and overlearn a concept to retain it. - Have positive expectations for the child’s learning: set a goal to maximize his or her learning. - Look for resource support: use teacher aids and recruit volunteers such as sensitive retirees to help you educate children with mental retardation. - Consider using applied behavior analysis strategies: the precise steps involved in applied behavior analysis can especially help you use positive reinforcement effectively with children who have mental retarded. 11. Describe the two major approaches for working with children with hearing impairments, along with the best practices for working with such children. Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional - Oral approaches: using lip reading, speech reading (a reliance on visual cues to learn reading), and whatever hearing the student has - Manual approaches: sign language and finger spelling (and counting) 12. State and briefly describe the five types of speech and language disorders. - Articulation disorders: problems in pronouncing sounds correctly - Voice disorders: disorders producing speech that is hoarse, harsh, too loud, too high-pitched, or too low-pitched - Fluency disorders: disorders that basically means “stuttering” - Language disorders: significant impairments in a child’s receptive or expressive language - Specific Language Impairment (SLI): involves problems in language development that are no accompanied by other obvious physical, sensory, or emotional problems; in some cases, the disorder is called developmental language disorder - Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): Also called persuasive developmental disorders, they range from the severe disorder labeled autistics disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome. Children with these disorders are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors. 13. Distinguish between receptive and expressive language disorders, and the "best practices" for working with children with the disorders. - Be patient - Speak normally, not too slowly and not too quickly - Don’t shout, because this doesn’t help. Speaking distinctly is more helpful - Reduce distractions and background noises - Face the student to whom you are speaking, because the student needs to read your lips and see your gestures 14. State the defining characteristics of an autism spectrum disorder. - Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): Also called persuasive developmental disorders, they range from the severe disorder labeled autistics disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome. Children with these disorders are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors 15. Differentiate between autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome. - Autistic disorder is a severe developmental autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped pattern of behavior Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional - Asperger syndrome is a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, a restricted range of interest and relationships, and often engage in repetitive routines 16. Describe the educational approaches that children with autism most benefit from. - Children with autism benefit from a well-structured classroom, individualized instruction, and small-group instruction. As with children who are mentally retarded, behavior modification techniques are effective in helping autistic children learn. 17. List and define the major aspects of IDEA. - Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is this act spells out broad mandates for services to all children with disabilities, including evaluation and determination of eligibility, appropriate education and an individualized educational plan, and education in the least restrictive environment. Children must be evaluated and diagnosed with a disability or other health impairment before school can begin providing special services. Parents must be invited to participate in the evaluation process. IDEA requires that students with disabilities have an individualized education plan or IEP which is a written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored for the student with a disability. 18. Describe what an IEP involves. - IEP or Individualized education process is a written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored for the student and a disability. IEP involves a child’s learning capacity, it is structured to meet a child’s individual needs and not merely a copy what is offered to other children, and designed to provide educational benefits. 19. Discuss the concept of the LRE. - LRE or Least Restrictive Environment is a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated. Schools must make an effort to educate children with a disability in the regular classroom. 20. Define inclusion. - Inclusion is educating children with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom. 21. Discuss the "best practices" for working with children with disabilities as a regular classroom teacher, and for communicating with their parents. Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional - Carry out each child’s individualized education plan or IEP - Encourage your school to provide increased support and training in how to teach children with disabilities. - Become more knowledge about the types of children with disabilities in your classroom: look into taking a class at college or university or a continuing education course on topics such as exceptional children, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and emotional and behavioral disorders. - Be cautious about labeling children with a disability: always think of children with disabilities in terms of what the best conditions are for improving their learning and how they can he helped to make progress rather than in terms of unchanging labels - Remember that children with disabilities benefit from many of the same teaching strategies that benefit children with disabilities and vice versa - Help children without a disability to understand and accept children that do have disabilities: Peer tutoring and cooperative learning activities can be used to encourage positive interaction between children without a disability and child with a disability 22. List and describe the three criteria that characterize children who are gifted. - Precocity: children who are gifted begin to master an area earlier than their peers. Learning in their domain is more effortless for them than for children who are not gifted. In most instances, children who are gifted are precocious because this inborn precocity has to be identified and nourished. - Marching to their own drummer: children who are gifted learn differently than children. One way they march to a different drummer is that they require less support, or scaffolding from adults to learn than their non- gifted peers do. Gifted children also discover things on their own and solve problems in unique ways within their area of giftedness. They can be normal or below average in other areas. - A passion to master: Children who are gifted are driven to understand the domain in which they have high ability. They display an intense, obsessive interest and an ability to focus. They are not children who need to be pushed by their parents. They frequently have a high degree of internal motivation. 23. Discuss four program options for children who are gifted. - Special Classes: the special classes during the regular school day are called “pull-out” programs. Some of the special classes also are held are held after school, on Saturdays, or in the summer - Acceleration and enrichment in the regular classroom setting: this could include early admission to kindergarten, grade skipping, completing two grades in one year, advanced placement, subject-matter acceleration, and self-paced instruction. Curriculum compacting is a variation of acceleration Topic Five: Learners Who are Exceptional in which teachers skip over aspects of the curriculum that they believe children who are gifted do not need. - Mentor and apprenticeship programs: some experts stress there are important ways to motivate, challenge, and effectively education a child who is gifted - Work/study and/or community-service programs 24. Describe the "best practices" for working with children who are gifted. - Recognize that the children are academically advanced. - Guide the child to new challenges and ensure that school is a positive experience. - Monitor the accurate evaluation of the child’s readiness to be accelerated - Discuss with parents ways to appropriately challenge the child - Learn about and use resources for children who are gifted.


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