Ed Psy 330: Week 6
Ed Psy 330: Week 6 Ed Psy 330
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches Emma Eiden 1. State the definitions of learning and associative learning. - Learning: a relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience - Associative Learning: learning that two events are connected. 2. Define mental processes as viewed by psychologists. - Mental process as viewed by psychologists is thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be observed by others. 3. Explain the view of behaviorism in general and how behaviorists consider mental processes. - For the behaviorist, these thoughts, feelings, and motives are not appropriate subject matter for a science of behavior because they cannot be directly observed. They view things more with classical conditioning and operant conditioning that can be overall described with associative learning. 4. Explain what the term "cognition" refers to. - Cognition means “thoughts” and thinking. Cognition is mental processing that includes the attention of working memory, comprehending and producing language, calculating, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. 5. Describe the behavioral view of learning, as well as what each of the four major cognitive approaches emphasizes. - The cognitive emphasis continues today and is the basis for numerous approaches to learning. There are four main cognitive approaches to learning such as: - Social cognitive approaches: how behavior, environment, and person (cognitive) factors interact to influence thinking - Information processing: focuses on how children process information though attention, memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes. - Cognitive constructivist: emphasizes the child’s cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding - Social Constructivist: focuses on collaboration with others to produce knowledge and understanding. 6. Explain the process of classical conditioning, utilizing the proper terms for the stimuli and responses, and name the person who first described it. Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches - Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect, or associate, stimuli. In classical conditioning, a neural stimulus (like the sight of a person) becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus (like food) and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who developed the concept classical conditioning. 7. Distinguish between generalization and discrimination. - Generalization as shown in classical conditioning involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response. Unlike that, discrimination in classical conditioning occurs when the organism responds to certain stimuli but not others. This was show in Pavlov’s dog experiment. To produce discrimination, Pavlov gave food to the dog only after ringing the bell, not after any other sounds. The dog responded only to the bell. 8. Explain the classical conditioning view of extinction. - Extinction in classical conditioning involves the weakening of the conditional response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). For example, Pavlov rang the bell repeatedly but did not give the dog any good. Eventually the dog stopped salivating at the sound of the bell. 9. Evaluate classical conditioning. - Classical conditioning helps people understand some aspects of learning better than others. It explains how neutral stimuli become associated with unlearned, involuntary responses. Mostly, it is helpful in understanding students’ anxieties and fears as why a student studies hard for tests or like some subjects better than others. 10. Define operant conditioning and identify the person who first described it. - Operant conditioning, which is also called instrumental conditioning, is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. B. F. Skinner is the father of this theory of conditioning because it clearly states the idea of consequences- rewards and punishments- are contingent on the organism’s behavior. 11. Distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement, and positive and negative punishment. Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches - A positive reward is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur and a punishment is a consequence that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur. A positive reinforcement is a reinforcement that is based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus. Finally, a negative reinforcement is a reinforcement that is based on the frequency of a response increases because an aversive or unpleasant stimulus is removed. 12. Explain the process of generalization and discrimination, as well as extinction, as they occur in operant conditioning. - Generalization in operant learning conditioning means giving the same response to another stimulus; especially of interest is the extent to which behavior generalizes from one situation to another. Discrimination in operant conditioning involves differentiating among stimuli or environmental events. Finally, extinction in operant conditioning is when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases. In the classroom, the most common use of extinction is for the teacher to withdraw attention from a behavior that the attention is maintaining. 13. State the purpose of applied behavior analysis, and three applications of it in educational settings. - Applied behavior analysis is an application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior. Three uses of applied behavior analysis are especially important in education: increasing desirable behavior, using prompts and shaping and decreasing undesirable behavior and these applications of applied behavior is often used in a series of steps. 14. Describe six operant conditioning strategies that can be used to increase a child's desirable behaviors. - Six operant conditioning strategies that can be used to increase a child’s desirable behavior are choosing effective reinforcement, making the reinforcement contingent and timely, selecting the best schedule of reinforcements, considering contracting, using negative reinforcements effectively, and using prompts and shaping. 15. Define the Premack principle. - The Premack Principle is a principal that a high-probability activity that can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity. Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches 16. Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement, along with which produce greater resistance to extinction and higher response rates. - Schedules of reinforcement are partial reinforcement timetables that determine when a response will be reinforced. The four main schedules of reinforcement are fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval. - Fixed-ratio Schedule: is a behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses such as a teacher getting praise after every fourth correct response instead of every time. - Variable-Ratio Schedule: is a behavior that is reinforced after an average number of times, but still on an unpredictable basis such as a teacher praising every fifth response but then after every second correct response after eight corrects, then the next seven responses, and maybe after the next three responses and so on. - Fixed-Interval Schedule: is the principal that the first appropriate response behavior was reinforced. A teacher might praise a child for the first good question the child asks after two minutes have elapsed or give a quiz every week, - Variable-Interval Schedule: is a response that is reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed. On this schedule, the teacher might praise the child’s question-asking after three minutes have gone by, then after fifteen minutes have gone by, after seven minutes, and so on. Giving a pop quiz at uneven intervals is another example of a variable-interval schedule. 17. Define what a prompt is and describe the use of prompts. - Prompt is an added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response that increases the likelihood the response will occur. Prompts help get behavior going. Instructions can be used as prompts and some prompts come in the form of hints, like when a teacher tells her students to line up “quietly”. Some prompts are presented visually, like when a teacher places her hands by her ear when a student is not speaking loudly enough. 18. Describe how the process of "shaping" works. - Shaping is teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to a specific target behavior. Subsequently, a teacher reinforces a response that more closely resembles that target and so on until the student performs the target behavior, and then the teacher reinforces it. Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches 19. State and discuss the four steps for decreasing undesirable behaviors. - When a teacher wants to decrease children’s behaviors, there are some four steps that can be followed: use differential reinforcement, terminate reinforcement (extinction), remove desirable stimuli, and then present aversive stimuli (punishment). 20. Describe the best practices for using time-out, defining the term itself. - Time-outs are removing an individual from positive reinforcement. Teachers use this to remove desirable stimuli because it takes the student away from positive reinforcement. 21. Define response cost. - Response cost is taking a positive reinforcement away from an individual like when the student loses certain privileges. 22. State the most common forms of aversive stimuli used by teachers, and what factors make them more effective. - The most common types of aversive stimuli that teachers use are verbal reprimands. There are more effectively used when the teacher is near the student rather than across the room and when used together with a nonverbal reprimand such as a frown or eye contact. Reprimands are more effective when they are given immediately after unwanted behavior and when they are short and to the point. Another strategy is to take the student aside and reprimand the student in private than in front of the entire class. 23. Evaluate operant conditioning and applied behavior analysis. - Operant conditioning and applied behavior analysis have made contributions to teaching practices. Reinforcing and punishing consequences are part of teachers’ and students’ lives. Teachers give grades, praise and reprimand, smile and frown. Learning about how such consequences affect students’ behavior improves your capabilities as a teacher. Use effectively, behavioral techniques can help manage a classroom. - Critics of operant conditioning and applied behavior analysis argue that the whole approach places too much emphasis on external control of a student’s behavior and a better strategy would be to help students learn to control their own behavior and become internally motivated. Another criticism is that when teachers spend too much time using applied behavior analysis, they might focus too much on student Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches conduct and not enough on academic learning. Overall, critics point out the potential ethical problems when operant conditioning is used inappropriately, as when a teacher immediately resorts to punishing students instead of first considering reinforcement strategies or punishing the student without giving them examples of good behavior. 24. Describe the process of observational learning, including the four processes involved in it. - Observational learning is learning that involves acquiring skills, strategies, and beliefs by observing others. There are four processes that are involved with it: - Attention: before students can produce a model’s actions, they must attend to what the model is doing or saying. Attention to the model is influenced by a host of characteristics such as warm, powerful, atypical people command more attention than do cold, weak, typical people. Students are more likely to be attentive to high-status models than to low-status models. In most cases, teachers are high-status models for students. - Retention: to reproduce a model’s actions, students must code the information and keep it in memory so that they retrieve it. A simple verbal descriptive or a vivid image of what the model did assist students’ retention. - Production: children might attend to a model and code in memory what they have seen, but because of limitations in their motor abilities, not be able to reproduce the model’s behavior. - Motivation: Often children attend to what a model says or does, retain the information in memory, and possess the motor skills to perform the action but are not motivated to perform the modeled behavior. 25. Discuss the best practices for effectively using observational learning. - Think about what type of model you will present to students: every day, hour after hour, students will watch and listen to what you say and do - Demonstrate and teach new behaviors: demonstrating means that you, the teacher, are a model for your students’ observational learning. When demonstrating how to do something, you need to call students’ attention to the relevant details of the learning situation. - Think about ways to use peers as effective models: the teacher is not the only model in the classroom. As with teachers, children can puck their peers’ good and bad habits, high or low achievement orientations. For students with low-achieving students who struggle but Topic Six: Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches put considerable efforts into learning and ultimately perform the behaviors can be a good model. - Think about way that mentors can be used as models: students and teachers benefit from having a mentor. As a teacher, a potential mentor for you is more experienced teacher, possible someone who teachers down the hall and has had a number of years of experience in dealing with some of the same problems and uses you will have to cope with. - Evaluate which classroom guests will provide good models for students - Consider models children observe on television, videos, and computers: the principals of observational learning we described earlier apply to these of media. 26. Describe the cognitive behavioral technique known as self- instructional methods. - Self-instructional methods are the ability of one to cognitively plan, organize, direct, reinforce, and evaluate one’s own independent learning without a teacher's prompting. There are three powerful influences behind self-instruction: First the learning and modelling of materials, the ability of verbalization, and finally, self-regulation (metacognition). 27. Discuss the four components in helping students become self- regulatory learners. - The four components in helping students become self-regulatory learners who can engage in multistep strategies are self-evaluation and monitoring, goal setting and strategic planning, putting a plan into action and monitoring it, and monitoring outcomes and refining strategies 28. Evaluate the social cognitive approaches. - The social cognitive approaches have made important contributions to educating children. While keeping the behaviorists’ scientific flavor and emphasis on careful observation, they significantly expanded the emphasis of learning to include social and cognitive factors. Critics of this come from several points. Some cognitive theorists point out that the approaches still focus too much on overt behavior and external factors and not enough on the detail of how cognitive processes such as thinking, memory, and problem solving actually take place. All of these critics also have been leveled at the behavioral approaches, such as Skinner’s operant conditioning.
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