Psych 101 Module 1 and Module 2
Psych 101 Module 1 and Module 2 PSYC 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna M on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at Winthrop University taught by Donna Nelson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Winthrop University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Egocentrism: kids only see world from their perspective Do not understand that others have a separate mind (Example: Take a familiar object (juice) and take out juice and fill with a different object. Tell child that there is no juice inside of it. Then ask child if the child across the room knows about the different thing in the juice box. This child will think that they know because they know. Conservation: test whether or not they understand that appearances do not change the quantity of something. Have to have logic to understand conservation (Example: quarter test) Intro to Psych Psychology: scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behaviors: overt actions or reactions Mental processes: internal, covert activity of the mind, thoughts or emotions Research begins with observation and curiosity Hypothesis: belief or assertion as to the relationship between two or more variables (observations are generally very biased) Example: opposites attract in relationship Research questions may be biased Psychologist have to not be biased by: observing a wide range of other respondents, have a systematic way of measuring relationships, problems, etc. Scientific method Psychology is an empirical science (collect data, test a lot of different people or theories) We can test our own beliefs that we based on personal experience Redefine our old theories after new findings Why was our old theory wrong? (now you can make a new theory or belief) Theory: explanations that organizes principles and predicts future behavior Example: opposites in romance do not attract because disagreements and conflict are common and unpleasant Goals of psychology description: what is happening? Showing the facts of what is happening You’re not actually explaining anything just giving facts Prediction: will it happen again? Make recommendations on offenders, victims, etc. Example: if we can make students join organizations during their first semester, we can predict that they will not drop out Explanation: why is it happening? (develop theories) Control: how can we make positive changes? How can we help students get more connected so they do not leave due to stress? Different ways to collect data Observing and recording behavior Participant observation: observing a group from the inside Outside observation Inter rater reliability: more than one observer and then come together and compare observations Archival analysis: look up accumulated documents on a event School records, diaries, novels, magazines, etc. Surveys: written questionnaire, oral questions Used for correlational research Correlational research: explores naturally occurring relationships between variables Researcher does not manipulate anything Allows testing of predictions but does not specify cause and effect Example: the more people who use social media may be more depressed than those who do not (those who use social media more tend to compare themselves to others out there) Correlation can be positive or negative Positive: one variable increases while the other decreases Negative: one variable decreases while the other increases Example: more time with a virtual relationship, the less time with a real relationship (negative) Correlation coefficient -1 to +1 Closer to 0, the weaker the correlation Closer to 1 or -1, the stronger the correlation Correlational approach example Hypothesis: excessive time on facebook is linked with depression Example: Hypothesis= high self esteem is linked to success Might of thought that because of correlational studies (which is wrong) Success actually causes high self esteem (getting good grades and having social success) Correlational approach has limitation Correlation does not equal causation, therefore we cannot be sure if the cause and effect explanations are correct In order to use cause and effect, we have experimented research: searching for cause and effect Control: manipulating variables Independent variables: experimental factor that researcher manipulates Have 2 conditions (experimental condition and control condition) Example: control which video game they play (violent or nonviolent game) Dependent variable: variable being measured; depends on manipulations of the independent variable Example: look at the effect Internal validity: the groups are the same except for the independent variable (cannot be biased, have to be in groups randomly aka random assignment) Experimental approach example: Hypothesis: Exposure to violent media increases aggression Independent variable: level of exposure to violent media Dependent variable: aggression Making decisions about how to define variables Problem of “demand characteristics”: if participants know the purpose of the experiment, this could contaminate their responses Especially when studying sensitive topics such as aggression, researchers often employ a “cover story” (which involves deception) Example of “cover story”: people are part of an advertisement company and have to select product to sell to people. The buyer says something nasty to the person selling (wants a situation that provokes the subject aka the person selling the product) and the researcher judges their aggressive reaction to the provoking After experiment is over, we have to tell the subject the truth of the experiment (“debriefing”) Emphasis on control/ precision Strengths: able to make causal links between variables (confidence in internal validity) Limitations: sometimes not feasible or ethical (e.g., race, gender, type of parents) Relevance to “real world” may be questioned (external validity) Hard to be completely realistic, but researchers compensate by.. Use of confederates, “staging”, sometimes deception Make psychological dynamics as real as possible, even though the setting may be artificial Ethical considerations: Do no harm Informed consent Right to leave research without penalty Right to see results Deception must be essential and justified. If it is used, a debriefing is required Psych Reading Notes (p. 2-19) Psychology is the study of how each of us thinks, feels, and acts in our everyday lives Psychology is all around us (when dealing with our significant others, correct someone's behavior, etc.) Psych is used to understand other people’s actions and our own Whether it's improving our learning abilities, how to deal with stress or learning how our mind and body are connected Psychologist not only study human actions but also animals Study what happens in their bodies but also in their brains Behavior: all of our outward or overt actions or reactions (talking, facial expressions and movement) Mental processes: all internal, hidden activity of our minds (thinking, feeling, remembering) As observers, we tend to see only what we expect or want to see, causing us to be biased The History of Psychology First started in a lab in Germany in 1879 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) attempted to apply scientific principles to the study of the human mind (he was known as the “father of psychology”) Wundt believed that consciousness (state of being aware of external activities) could be broken down into thoughts, experiences, emotions and other basic elements Students began to study the human mind They had to start thinking objectively about their own thoughts to try to understand these nonphysical elements This new process was called objective introspection: process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities Example: One would place a rock into a student’s hand and have the student tell him everything that he was feeling as a result of having the rock in his hand (all the sensations stimulated by the rock) Structuralism: study the structure of the mind The idea of structuralism slowly died out due to arguments on which key elements were the most important William James: focused more on how the mind allows people to function in the real world Functionalism: how people work, play, adapt to their surroundings “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” Gestalt Psychology: studying whole patterns rather than small pieces of them Cognitive psychology: field focusing on perception, learning, memory, thought processes and problem solving Sigmund Freud’s theory of Psychoanalysis: Was curious as to why his patients came in with nervous disorders for which there were no physical causes He proposed that there is a unconscious mind into which we push or repress all of our threatening urges and desires Believed that the repression of these desires caused the nervous disorders Thought that the first 6 years of life were most important when it came to forming the personality Psychoanalysis: theory and therapy based on Freud's ideas led to Psychotherapy: process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insights into and change his or her behavior Dawn of Behaviorism Focused on observable behavior rather than consciousness John B. Watson: believed that all behavior is learned Example: Phobias are learned through the process of conditioning Psychodynamic perspective: focus is still on the unconscious mind as well as influence over conscious behavior and early childhood experiences Behavioral perspective (B.F. Skinner) Operant conditioning: how voluntary behavior is learned Behavioral responses that are followed by pleasure consequences are reinforced Humanistic perspective: people had “free will” or the freedom to chose their own destiny Self actualization: achievement of one's full potential Cognitive perspective: focuses on how people think, remember, store and use information Cognitive neuroscience: study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory or thinking or other cognitive processes MRI, fMRI or PET are tools used to see imaging in the brain Sociocultural perspective: combines social psych and cultural psych Social psych: study of groups, social roles and rules of social actions Cultural psych: study of cultural norms, values and expectations Biopsychological perspective: study of biological bases of behavior and mental processes Also studies hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors and diseases that cause different behaviors and mental events Examples: sleep, emotions, aggression, sexual behavior, etc. Evolutionary perspective: focuses on biological bases for universal mental characteristics that all humans share Explains general mental strategies and traits (why we lie, why fear of snakes is so common, etc.) Relationships between men and women is the main area that evolutionary psychologists do their research Basic research: research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge Applied research: research is aimed more towards answering real world problems Psych Reading Notes p. 20-41 Scientific Research Scientific method: way to determine facts and control the possibilities of error and bias when observing behavior Perceiving the questions Forming a hypothesis Testing hypothesis Drawing conclusions Reporting results Different ways to describe behavior Naturalistic observation: watching animals or people in their natural environment but have the disadvantage of lack of control Lab observations: involve watching animals or people in an artificial but controlled situation Case studies: detailed investigations of one subject (not like surveys) Information gained from case studies cannot be used on other cases Correlational technique and its usefulness Correlation: statistical technique that allows researchers to discover and predict relationships between variables of interest Positive correlation: increase in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable Negative correlation: when increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable Correlations cannot be used to prove cause and effect Steps in designing an experiment experiments: are tightly controlled manipulations of variables that allow researchers to determine cause and effect relationships Independent variable: variable that is deliberately manipulated by the experimenter to see if related changes occur in the behavior of the participants and is given to the experimental group Dependent variable: measured behavior of the participants Control group either receives the placebo treatment or nothing Random assignment of participants helps to control for individual differences both within and between the groups that might otherwise interfere with the experiments outcome Common problems in experiments Single blind studies: subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or control group Double blind studies: when experimenter and subject does not know which is the experimental or control group Critical thinking Ability to make reasoned judgements Criteria for critical thinking Few concepts that do not need to be tested Evidence can vary in quality Claims by experts and authorities do not automatically make something true Keeping an open mind is important Preoperational Stage Symbolic thought able to represent things with words and images Ability to pretend Egocentrism Conservation The principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects (like height difference of glasses sharing the same amount of liquid) Preoperational stage Unable to perform conservation due to: o Centration- focus on one dimension at a time o Irreversibility- cannot mentally reverse actions o Confusion about appearances vs. reality (demonstrates lack of logic) Ex: Kids will believe that if you are wearing a mask you will turn into what that mask is. Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) Think logically about concrete events o (objects, written rules, and real things) Able to perform conservation tasks Reversibility in thought If A>B, then B<A Allows understanding of hierarchies o Sorting task – (Fido, animal, dog, retriever) Begins to think more logically about beliefs (e.g., is there a Santa Claus) Formal operational stage (12 and up) Abstract reasoning – possibilities & probabilities Scientific reasoning Potential for mature moral reasoning Greater continuity in development (less abrupt/more gradual) than expected Focus on interaction with objects rather than people as mentors Developmental milestones occur earlier than expected Social Development in Childhood Infants and children develop personalities and form relationships with others This process is influenced by o Temperament (Nature) o Social context & Experiences (Nurture) Emotional character that produces predictable behavioral patterns. Fairly well established at birth & tends to be stable over time. Easy o Regular, adaptable, and happy Difficult o Irregular in schedule, unhappy with change, loud Slow-to-warm up o Quieter, need to adjust gradually to change Social Development Attachment Unique qualities o An emotional tie with another person o Distress on separation o Longer term relationship Development of Attachment o Factors affecting attachment relationships o Body contact (Harry Harlowe) (Monkey experiment) o Follow up studies examined the quality of human attachment as a function of body contact o Differences in body contact predicted type of attachment o Secure, insecure or unattached Attachment type depends on several factors o Body contact o Familiarity o Temperament o Responsive parenting Parental Behavior linked to quality of attachment relationship o Secure attachment Willing to explore, upset when mother departs but easily soothed upon her return o Avoidant attachment (unattached) Unattached; explore without “touching base” o Ambivalent attachment (insecure) Insecurely attached; upset when mother leaves, angry upon her return o Disorganized (insecure) Insecure attachment, fearful, dazed, depressed Assessing attachment type o Strange situation (ainsworth et. Al) Early attachments influence later social functioning Peer relationships Romantic relationships Relationships Secure- I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. Avoidant- I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being Ambivalent – I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, but sometimes this scares people away. Impact of divorce during childhood 60 families Divorce when children 6 or younger Longitudinal study – 30 years o Only 40% of the children (now adults) had ever been married o Reported more apprehension/pessimism about relationships than a control group Social development – self-concept/self esteem Developing positive self-esteem is the major social development achievement of later childhood o Looking glass self: o How we thing others perceive us serves as a mirror for perceiving ourselves o (importance of interactions with others) Reflection questions: Who has provided the post memorable reflected appraisals of you? How have the appraisals of others served to threaten or boost your sense of self/ self - esteem? Give a few specific examples to illustrate this. Can a child develop high self – esteem if their family, peers and teachers all give them negative appraisals and interactions Social development Types of parenting styles o Authoritative o Warm/responsive and high expectations Authoritarian Concerned with rules Stern, rigid, demanding Permissive Few demands on children Permissive neglectful Permissive indulgent Erikson – noted theorist Importance of early relationships & social context Universal stages o Eight important turning points during life Stages 1 basic trust vs mistrust infancy to 1 year o If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust and hope o Can I trust the world? o Optimism or pessimism Adolescence Adolescence o The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties o Person is no longer physically a child o Not yet an independent, self-supporting adult o Time of transition Puberty o Physical changes in body o Sexual development o Lasts roughly four years Abstract thinking o Consider hypotheticals, plan for the future Adolescent must choose from among options for values in life and beliefs o Political issues, career options, marriage, children, etc. Peer Influence o Peers begin to have more influence than parents o Those who successfully handled earlier stages are better able to resist negative peer pressure Personal Fable o Adolescent believe he/she is unique o Protected from harm Imaginary audience o Adolescent believes others are concerned about his/her The social development task of adolescence is forming an adult identity o Erikson’s theory o Identity crisis o Identity cohesion vs. role confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are Identity confusion (versus identity cohesion) o I am not sure who I am as a person o I tend to set short term goals, but have trouble establishing long range plans o I am susceptible to the shifting whims of peer pressure influences o I am apt to have trouble making decisions, fearing that I may be wrong. Moratorium – holding pattern o Period of experimentation Often extends into college years Identity achievement o Self-chosen goals values must pass through moratorium to reach this point o Although the identity question has been resolved, it is still possible that identity issues may recur later in life Identity foreclosure o Accept ready-made identity Parental pressure Normative pressure Identity diffusion o Avoid identity issues o Coping strategy Adulthood o Begins in early twenties o Stages include young childhood Generativity (generating something to give back to the world) Providing guidance to the next generation Parents educator’s supervisors, health care professionals, etc. help the next generation Integrity vs despair When you reflect back on your life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure Sense of wholeness Comes from having lived a full life Ability to let go of regrets Early attachments influence later social functioning Peer relationships Romantic relationships Relationships Secure- I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me. Avoidant- I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being Ambivalent – I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, but sometimes this scares people away. Impact of divorce during childhood 60 families Divorce when children 6 or younger Longitudinal study – 30 years o Only 40% of the children (now adults) had ever been married o Reported more apprehension/pessimism about relationships than a control group Social development – self-concept/self esteem Developing positive self-esteem is the major social development achievement of later childhood o Looking glass self: o How we thing others perceive us serves as a mirror for perceiving ourselves o (importance of interactions with others) Reflection questions: Who has provided the post memorable reflected appraisals of you? How have the appraisals of others served to threaten or boost your sense of self/ self - esteem? Give a few specific examples to illustrate this. Can a child develop high self – esteem if their family, peers and teachers all give them negative appraisals and interactions Social development Types of parenting styles o Authoritative o Warm/responsive and high expectations Authoritarian Concerned with rules Stern, rigid, demanding Permissive Few demands on children Permissive neglectful Permissive indulgent Erikson – noted theorist Importance of early relationships & social context Universal stages o Eight important turning points during life Stages 1 basic trust vs mistrust infancy to 1 year o If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust and hope o Can I trust the world? o Optimism or pessimism Adolescence Adolescence o The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties o Person is no longer physically a child o Not yet an independent, self-supporting adult o Time of transition Puberty o Physical changes in body o Sexual development o Lasts roughly four years Abstract thinking o Consider hypotheticals, plan for the future Adolescent must choose from among options for values in life and beliefs o Political issues, career options, marriage, children, etc. Peer Influence o Peers begin to have more influence than parents o Those who successfully handled earlier stages are better able to resist negative peer pressure Personal Fable o Adolescent believe he/she is unique o Protected from harm Imaginary audience o Adolescent believes others are concerned about his/her The social development task of adolescence is forming an adult identity o Erikson’s theory o Identity crisis o Identity cohesion vs. role confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are Identity confusion (versus identity cohesion) o I am not sure who I am as a person o I tend to set short term goals, but have trouble establishing long range plans o I am susceptible to the shifting whims of peer pressure influences o I am apt to have trouble making decisions, fearing that I may be wrong. Moratorium – holding pattern o Period of experimentation Often extends into college years Identity achievement o Self-chosen goals values must pass through moratorium to reach this point o Although the identity question has been resolved, it is still possible that identity issues may recur later in life Identity foreclosure o Accept ready-made identity Parental pressure Normative pressure Identity diffusion o Avoid identity issues o Coping strategy Adulthood o Begins in early twenties o Stages include young childhood Generativity (generating something to give back to the world) Providing guidance to the next generation Parents educator’s supervisors, health care professionals, etc. help the next generation Integrity vs despair When you reflect back on your life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure Sense of wholeness Comes from having lived a full life Ability to let go of regrets Psychology 101 Biology, Personality, and Behavior Nature Vs. Nurture Debate (Importance of inheritance vs environment) o Twin studies o Comparing twins o Identical (Look exactly alike) o One egg that splits in half o Fraternal (they look different) o Two eggs (that get fertilized at the same time) Identical twins They grew up together in the same environment. The correlation between their IQ scores is .86. They have very similar IQ’s Fraternal Twins They grew up together in the same environment. The correlation between their IQ scores is .50. they have moderately similar IQ’s What explains the greater similarity? Twin Studies Example- study of 800 adolescent twin pairs (Loehlin and Nichols) Evidence for importance of inheritance Intelligence (IQ) scores Psychological disorders o Antisocial behavior, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, etc. Personality traits o Sociability, leadership abilities, the tendency to follow rules, emotionality, etc. (e.g., correlations in the range of .51 identical vs. .18 for fraternal) Determining the role of inheritance in personality o Twin studies Is it possible that higher correlations for identical twins are not solely due to the impact of genes on personality? Identical twins may experience more similar environmental effects Studies of twins separated at birth address this issue Determining the role of inheritance in personality o Adoption studies o Are adopted children more similar in personality, intelligence, etc. to the adoptive parents who raised them or to the biological parents they have never met. o Adopted children are more similar too biological parent’s vs adoptive parents with respect to intelligence and personality although they are more similar to adoptive parents in terms of attitudes, manners and faith. Both inheritance and environment are important o Nature inherited biology creates limits in potential and personal tendencies Psychology 101 o Nurture environment determines whether we will reach our potential and the ways our tendencies are expressed Biological Perspective Personality and Neurophysiology o What explains the importance of genes (inheritance) to personality?? o How does Biology provide the foundation for personality? o Are some brains nicer than others? Are personality characteristics related to structural differences in the brain? Early theory Phrenology Frances Gall 1796 Could a bump on the back of your head offer a clue to your inner personality? Gall believed physical appearance of one’s head was linked to emotions/behavior, etc He thought certain areas of the brain were responsible for certain aspects of personality He believed the skull would bulge out according to which of these traits were dominant His theory was eventually dismissed as pseudoscience However, his general idea that different areas of the brain are linked to different mental processes was correct. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) o More detail than CT scan o Uses radio waves and magnetic fields to produce detailed images of brain’s interior Measures volume of different areas of the brain Measures concentration of chemicals in the brain Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Measures activity in different areas of the brain by monitoring oxygenated blood levels Agreeableness I believe others have good intentions I make people feel at ease I sympathize with others feelings Study by DeYoung et al,2010, used MRI technology Highly agreeable people have higher volume in the cingulate cortex (area of the limbic system linked to emotional processing and empathy) Extraversion/ Introversion I start conversations I don’t mind being the center of attention I feel comfortable around people I am the life of the party (E) I am quiet around strangers (r) I have little to say I keep in the background Eysenck Attention and mental arousal Controlled by reticular formation Different resting levels of alertness for introverts and extraverts Differences in boredom tendencies for introverts and extraverts Neuroticism I am easily disturbed I get stressed out easily I worry about things I often feel blue I have frequent mood swings I am relaxed most of the time (R) I seldom feel “Blue” Neuroticism/ emotional stability (Eysenck) Emotional arousal Greater startle response (fight or flight) Divisions of PNS Functions automatically Parasympathetic division Restores body to normal functioning after arousal responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands Neuroticism emotional stability (Eysenck) Emotional arousal Highly neurotic individuals have more activity in amygdala area of limbic system linked to emotional reactivity Fear, anger, stress Sensation seeking (Zuckerman) Very low mental arousal & lack of fear response Extreme behavior o Fearlessness can lead to deviant behavior or heroic behavior, depending on environmental influences Psychopaths have been shown to have abnormalities in their limbic system such as shrunken amygdala’s this consistent with characteristic symptoms such as a lack of guilt or empathy Cortex Outermost covering of the brain Consists of densely packed neurons Responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input Split into right and left cerebral hemispheres Can a person be right brained or left brained? Although each hemisphere has unique specialized functions they do not operate in isolation We do have a dominant hemisphere Corpus callosum Large bundle of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between the hemispheres Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body Robert sperry (68) Demonstrated left and right hemispheres of the brain specialize in different activities Corpus callosum severed in patients to contain epileptic seizures Messages are sent to only one side of the brain Two hemispheres cannot coordinate information o Language function speaking writing reading and understanding language o Math skills o Logical thought processes o Processing bits and pieces of information/ analysis of detail o Pattern recognition voices faces and places o Visual spatial skills o Understanding underlying meanings o Creative thought o Music and artistic processing o Processing of emotion o Nonverbal o States of Consciousness Consciousness Awareness of everything going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment Waking consciousness o Thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized Altered state of consciousness o Shift from waking consciousness in the quality or pattern of mental activity o Can involve increased or decreased alertness Bizarre dream images Divided attention o Cell phone and driving o Can put the driver at same risk as DUI Meditative state Hypnosis Drug induced state Sleep most common altered state (spend about 1/3 of lives in on a nightly basis) Is sleep necessary Restorative theory of sleep Bodily growth repair o Sleep deprivation Total deprivation can be fatal Other effects temporary or permanent Chronic or acute deprivation Self-test o I need an alarm clock in order to wake up on time o It’s a struggle for me to get out of bed in the morning o I often sleep extra hours on weekend mornings o I often fall asleep in boring lectures or meetings o Weekday mornings I hit the snooze bar several items to get more sleep o I feel tired irritable and stressed out during the week o I often feel drowsy while driving o I often need a nap to get through the day o I have dark circles under my eyes If you answer to 3 or more items, you probably are not getting enough sleep o How much sleep do we need? o Study by Heslegrave and Rhodes (1997) o Experiment – participants randomly assigned to sleep condition o 4 hours of sleep for 14 days o 6 hours of sleep for 14 days o 8 hours of sleep for 14 days (control group) o 3 days of sleep deprivation o In both the 4 hours and 6 hours’ condition participants’ ability to function mentally and physically were as negatively impacted as if they had been deprived of sleep for 2-3 days o Serious impairment, although participants were relatively unaware of their problems o Mental consequences o Physical consequences o Circadian rhythm o Cycle of body rhythms that occur over a 24-hour period o Circa about o Diem day o Area deep in hypothalamus produces melatonin which makes us feel sleepy o The pineal gland secretes the hormone in response to changes in light (e.g. as daylight fades) o REM sleep o Relatively active type of sleep o Most dreaming takes place in this stage o Voluntary muscle movement is inhibited o Non-REM sleep o Deeper more restful kind of sleep o Muscle movement not inhibited o Four stages o Electroencephalogram (EEG) o Measures electrical activity in brain o Different patterns during different stages o Beta waves o Awake mentally active small and fast EEG pattern o Alpha waves Become drowsy waves slightly larger and slower o Theta waves Slower and larger o Delta waves Deepest sleep largest and slowest waves o Non rem stage 1 brief light sleep o Fantastic dream like images hypnogogic images o Sensations of falling or floating hypnic jerk o Theta wave activity increases alpha wave activity fades o Non rem stage 2 light sleep o Body temperature continues to drop o Heart rate slows breathing becomes more shallow and irregular o Sleep talking common in this stage o Stage 3 Body is at its lowest level of functioning Delta waves Person is often hard to wake up Growth hormones released children spend more time in this stage so that their bodies will grow Sleepwalking – 20% of population; more common in children During rem sleep Body temperature increases eyes move rapidly Brain waves similar to waking state 90% of dreams occur in REM sleep o Rem Paralysis o Voluntary muscles are paralyzed o Rem makes up 20-25% of sleep cycle REM behavior disorder o Brain mechanisms that inhibit the voluntary muscles fail, so sleepwalking possible o Different from ordinary sleepwalking, which typically occurs stage 4 o Occurs mainly in men over 60 Murder while sleepwalking o Use of this defense is sometimes successful o Past history of sleep disturbance must be present for a convincing defense NREM sleep increases in response to physical demands on body to help body recover REM sleep increases in response to emotional stress Dreams may have psychological purpose (freud) Freud’s Interpretation Dreams are an outlet for repressed (Unconscious) feelings and urges (desires and fears) Manifest content o Obvious story line Latent Content o Hidden message often symbolic o Symbols King and queen Parents Small animals Children Elongated items Male genitals Enclosed spaces Female genitals Being naked in public Desire to be noticed Flying Desire to be admired Being Chased Something we are afraid of Contemporary perspectives o Information processing function Enhanced memory Enhanced problem solving ability Physiological Function o Develop and preserve neural pathways o Dream activity may provide stimulation of the sleeping brain o REM rebound provides evidence that REM sleep is vital o Increase in REM sleep noted after REM deprivation Infants spend 50% of sleep in REM, not dreaming but forming new neural connections Night Terrors (sleep disorder) State of panic experienced while asleep Relatively rare disorder More common in children Person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around without waking Occurs during stage four Nightmares o Bad dreams occurring during REM sleep Sleep Disorders Most common disorder Insomnia Types o Trouble falling asleep (more than 20 minutes) o Poor sleep quality o Waking too early o Insomnia o Causes Stress/anxiety/arousal Disrupted circadian rhythm Changing sleep schedules Illness/injury Overuse of caffeine/alcohol/nicotine Emotional problems Environmental problems o Insomnia o Remedies Exercise early Sleep on a regular schedule Relax before bed Avoid caffeine after noon Avoid nicotine Don’t take drugs that slow the nervous system Can cause REM rebound thus depriving body of deep sleep Avoid naps Go to bed when sleepy Only use the bed for sleep Bed should be a cue for sleeping Don’t try too hard to get to sleep Increases tension and makes it harder to sleep Narcolepsy o A rare neurologic disorder involving an imbalance in brain chemicals that regulate sleep. o Extreme daytime sleepiness o Attacks of REM sleep (Occur without Warning) o Sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy) o Vivid dreams o Triggered by intense emotion Genetic Basis Possible environmental triggers Sleep Apnea o Stop respiration during sleep (For nearly half a minute or more) o Repeated waking’s (500-1000) times o Chronic sleep deprivation o May be genetic or linked to obesity o Continuous Positive airway pressure device assists with breathing Sudden Infant Death Syndrome o Infants under 1 year of age die suddenly during sleep for no apparent reason o Linked to sleep position Forgetting Interference Theory Proactive interference o Older information prevents or interferes with retrieval of newer information Retroactive interference o Newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information A stimulus for remembering Lack of retrieval cues may be the most common cause of forgetting o Example- “tip of tongue” phenomenon Providing retrieval cues to enable a person to remember Recall Information to be retrieved Retrieval cues Encoding specificity o State dependent learning Easier to recall memories if in same physiological state as in when memory was made Flashbulb memories o Unexpected event with strong emotional associations o Emotions enhance formation of long term memories Memory o Misremembering Inaccuracies in memory Memory construction/distortion- every memory is a blend of knowledge and interference (e.g., more like making up a story than reading from a book) Reliance on Schemas Filling in gaps Change information to make it “fit” Inaccuracies in memory o Memory construction and distortion are unconscious o Eyewitness testimony o Leading questions Power of suggestion False memory syndrome o Creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others o False memories are established in the brain in the same manner as real memories o Unable to distinguish viewed pictures from imagined pictures o Plausibility does matter
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