Psy Ed 330: Week 7
Psy Ed 330: Week 7 Ed Psy 330
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
The Information-Processing Approach Emma Eiden 1. State what the information processing approach emphasizes. - The information processing approach is a cognitive approach in which children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this approach are the cognitive processes of memory and thinking. Children will develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills. 2. Compare and contrast the information processing approach with Piaget's approach. - Piaget stressed the role of biological maturation as a force behind growth. Piaget also emphasized that children pass through distinct periods of growth, or stages. Children in a particular stage differ as to how they approach and solve problems, growing more efficient as they move from stage to stage. It is important to note that for information processing theorist learning does not simply involve increasing rates of behavior. As children grow older, they are acquiring knowledge from the world, so one quantitative change that occurs over time is an increasing size of one's knowledge base. At the same time, children learn more efficient means of solving problems as they develop. Piaget theory differs because of the stress on quantitate change and learning, rather than on qualitative change and maturation. 3. Compare and contrast the information processing approach with the behavioral approach. - The behavioral approach emphasizing learning over maturation as an agent of change as children grow older. For behaviorists, these forces are primarily reinforcement. Either two stimuli are formed like classical conditioning, or the rate of a behavior changes because it leads to reinforcing or punishing consequences like operant conditioning. Learning involves the increasing rate of behavior due to reinforcement. 4. List the two cognitive resources important in information processing and the roles they play as they change with age. - The two cognitive resources important in information processing are capacity and speed of processing information. As children grow and mature and experience the world, their information-processing abilities increase. There changes are likely influenced by increases in both capacity ad speed of processing. How fast children process information often influences what they can do with that information. If an The Information-Processing Approach adolescent is trying to add up mentally the cost of an item, he needs to be able to compute the sum before he has forgotten the price of the items separately. Capacity and speed of processing information increases as a person grows older. 5. Define the three mechanisms that work together to create changes in children's cognitive skills. - Encoding is the process by which information gets into memory - Automatically is the ability to process information with little or no effort - Strategy construction is creation of a new procedure for processing information 6. Describe self-modification and metacognition and the role played by the latter during self-modification. - Self-modification is when children learn using what they have learned in previous circumstances to adapt their responses to a new situation and metacognition basically is a term that means “knowing about knowing”. 7. Discuss the best practices for helping students pay attention. - Encourage students to pay close attention and minimize distraction: talk with children about how important it is to pay attention when they need to remember something. Give them exercises that require them to give their undivided attention. - Use cues or gestures to signal that something is important: this might involve raising your voice, repeating something with emphasis, and writing the concept on the board. - Help students generate their own cue or catch phrase from when they need to pay attention: teach about words or pet phrases that helps them stay focused and on track. Teach them to say their word or pet phrase quietly but firmly to themselves when they catch their minds wandering. - Make something interesting: boredom can set in quickly in younger children and when it does their attention wanders from focus. Relating students’ interests in the classroom increase the amount they pay attention - Use media and technology effectively as part of your effort to vary the pace of the classroom: look for relevant videos and television programs that can help a teach vary the classroom’s pace and keep the overall attention flowing - Focus on active learning to make learning enjoyable: a different exercise, a guest, a field trip, and many other activities can be used to make learning more enjoyable The Information-Processing Approach - Don’t overload students with too much information: be careful because students who are given too much information too fast often have difficulty focusing their attention. - Be aware of individual differences in students’ attentional skills: some students have severe problems in paying attention. Close the window and draw the shade to eliminate the distractions from outside. 8. Define encoding and discuss the five processes involved in encoding. - Encoding is the process by which information gets into memory. Changes in children’s cognitive skills depend on increased skill at encoding relevant information and ignoring irrelevant information. Encoding involves five processes: - Rehearsal is the conscious of information over time to increase the length of information stays in memory - Elaboration is the extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding - Deep processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall. - Constructing images: when we construct an image of something, we are elaborating the information in order to do so - Organization: the study of the structure of an organization and of the ways in which the people in it interact, usually undertaken in order to improve the organization 9. Define elaboration and how it changes developmentally. - Elaboration is the extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding. The use of elaboration changes developmentally because adolescents are more likely to use elaboration spontaneously than children are. Elementary school children can be taught to use elaboration strategies on a learning task, but they are less likely than adolescents. Children remember keywords better when they constructed a meaningful sentence containing the word than when the keyword and its definition were to the child. 10. Define chunking and describe its effects. - Chucking is grouping or “packing” information into “high-order” units that can be remembered as single units. Chucking words by making large amounts of information more manageable and more meaningful. 11. Discuss the three "time frames" involved in memory storage. - Sensory memory is memory that holds information from the world in its original form for only an instant The Information-Processing Approach - Short-Term memory is a limited-capacity memory system in which information is retained or as long as 30 seconds, unless the information is rehearsed, in which case it can be retained longer - Long-Term memory is a type of memory that holds enormous amounts of information for a long period of time in a relatively permanent fashion 12. Describe how the memory span changes with age while defining the term. - Memory span is the number of digits an individual can report back without error in a single presentation. Memory span increased about 3 digits from 2 years of age to 5 digits at 7 years of age. By 12 years old, memory span had increased an average of another 1 and 1/5 digits. 13. List and discuss the three components of working memory described by Baddeley. - The phonological loop is specialized to briefly sore speech-based information about the sounds of language. The phonological loop contains two separate components: an acoustic code, which decays in a few seconds, ad rehearsal, which allows individuals to repeat the words in the phonological store. - Visuospatial working memory storage is visual and spatial information, including visual imagery. Like the phonological loop, visuospatial working memory functions independently. - The central exercise integrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory but also from long- term memory. As with the other two components of working memory, the phonological loop and visuospatial working memory, the central executive has a limited capacity. 14. Discuss the results of studies comparing the working memory of adolescents to the working memory of children. - Working memory is linked to many aspects of children’s development. Children who have better working memory are more advanced in reading comprehension, math skills, and problem solving than their counterparts with less effective working. Investigators examined the performances of children and adolescents on both verbal and visuospatial memory tasks and found that working memory increased substantially from 8 through 24 years of age no matter what the task. The adolescent years are likely to be important developmental period for improvement in working memory. The Information-Processing Approach 15. Describe the three memory stores in the Atikson-Schiffrin model. - The Atikson-Schiffrin model is a model of memory that involves a sequence of three stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Atikson and Schiffrin claimed that the longer information is retained in short-term memory through the use of rehearsal, the greater the chance if of getting into long-term memory. Sensory input goes into sensory memory. Through the process of attention, information moves in short-term memory, where it remains for 30 seconds or so, unless it is rehearsed. When the information does into long-term memory storage, it can be retrieve over the lifetime. Some critics believe that this is too simple of a theory. - Sensory memory holds information in the form in which it registers on the senses. It is a passive area. In other words, no real "thinking" or "manipulation of information" occurs in sensory memory. The purpose of sensory memory is simply to hold information entering the senses until the person selects those items important for processing. - Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed that short-term memory is the area where information is consciously processed and where decision-making and problem solving occur. An important process that takes place in short-term memory is rehearsal. In its simplest form, rehearsal involves the mental repetition of information. Rehearsal serves the purpose of moving information to the next area of the memory system, long-term memory. It also keeps information from being lost from STM. Without rehearsal information disappears from short-term memory in about ten to twenty seconds, and if it hasn't been moved to long-term memory it is literally gone. Hence, the name short-term memory for this part of the system. - Long-term memory is the long-term storage area of the memory system. Like sensory memory it is relatively passive. In other words, it really is just a storage area and no real thinking or problem solving occurs there. When you take a quiz or test or remember someone's name, you retrieve the information. 16. List and define the four subtypes into which long-term memory is divided. - For long-term memory, many contemporary psychologists accept the hierarchy of contents described. Declarative memory is subdivided into episodic memory and semantic memory which can describe the four subtypes of long-term memory: - Declarative memory is the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated. The Information-Processing Approach - Procedural memory is non-declarative knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations. Procedural memory cannot be consciously recollected, at least not in the form of specific events or facts. - Episodic memory is the retention of information about the where and when of life’s happenings - Semantic memory is an individual’s general knowledge of the world, independent of the individual’s identity with the past. 17. Describe fuzzy-trace theory, the two types of memory representations that fuzzy trace theorysays are created, which types are better remembered by preschool and elementary school children, and which types of memory representation are less likely to be forgotten. - The fuzzy-trace theory is states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: verbatim memory trace and fuzzy-trace or gist. In this theory, older children’s better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information. Researchers found that preschool children tend to remember verbatim information better than gist information, but elementary age children are more likely to remember gist information. The increased gist information by elementary aged students accounts for their improved memory, because fuzzy traces are less likely to be forgotten than verbatim traces. 18. Discuss the encoding specificity principle and its relationship to elaboration. - The encoding specificity principal is the principal that associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues. The concept of encoding specificity is compatible with earlier discussions in educational psychology. Encoding specificity and elaboration reveal how interdependent encoding and retrieval are. 19. Distinguish between recall and recognition. - Recall is a memory task in which individuals must retrieve previously learned information, as students must do for fill-in-the-blank exams or essay questions. Meanwhile, recognition is a memory task in which individuals only have to identify or recognize learned information, as is often the case on multiple choice tests. 20. Discuss the best practices strategies for helping students improve their memory. - Motivate children to remember material by understanding it rather than by memorizing it: children will remember information better over The Information-Processing Approach the long term if they understand the information rather than just rehearse and memorize it. - Assist students in organizing what they put into their memory: give them some practice arranging and reworking material that requires some structuring because students will remember information better if they organize information. - Teach mnemonic strategies: mnemonics are memory aids for remembering information. 21. Describe the gender differences that have been found in memory. - Females are better at episodic memory, which is memory for personal events that include time and place the event occurred and also are better than males at emotional-linked memory. In childhood and adulthood, females’ memory narratives include more emotional language and emotional experiences than males. Finally, females process information more elaborately and in greater detail. Whereas males may be more likely to use schemas or focus on overall information. - Men are better than females on tasks that require transformations in visuospatial working memory. There tasks include mental rotation, which involves the imagined motion of stationary objects. 22. List four strategies that students can develop to become experts at learning and studying. - Spreading out and consolidating learning - Asking themselves questions - Taking good notes - Using a study system 23. List and discuss three good note-taking strategies. - Summarizing: have students listen to the lecture for a few minutes and then have them write down main concepts in their own words, repeat, and so on - Outlining: show children how to outline what a speaker is saying, using first-level heads as the main topics, second-level as subtopics, and third under the second-levels - Using concept maps: help students practice drawing concepts maps, which are similar to outlines but visually portray information in a more spiderlike format 24. List and describe the steps of PQ4R. The Information-Processing Approach - Preview: tell the students to briefly survey the material to get a sense of the overall organization of ideas, to look at the headings to see the main topics and subtopics that will be covered - Question: encourage the children to ask themselves questions about the material as they read it - Read: Now tell the children to read the material. Encourage the students to be active reader to understand what the author is saying. This helps students to avoid being empty readers whose eyes just track the lines of text but whose mind fail to register anything that they read or that is important - Reflect: after they read something, challenge them to break open the ideas and scratch beneath their surface. This is a good time for them to think out applications and interpretations of the information, we well as connecting it with other information already in their long-term memory - Recite: involves children self-testing themselves to see if they can remember the material and reconstruct it - Review: tell students to go over the material and evaluate what they know and don’t know. They should reread and study the material they don’t remember or understand well enough to move forward 25. Distinguish between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive activity. - Metacognitive knowledge involves monitoring and reflecting on one’s current or recent thoughts while met occurs when students consciously adapt and manage their thinking strategies during problem solving and purposeful thinking. 26. Define theory of mind and how theory of mind changes through the childhood years. - Theory of the mind is awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others. Children’s theory of mind changes as they develop through children. The main changes occur at 2-3 years of age, 4-5, middle and late childhood, and adolescence. - 2-3 years children begin to understand three mental states: perceptions, emotions, and desires. Two to three year olds understand that people will search for what they want and that if they obtain it, they are likely to feel happy, but if they don’t they will keep searching for it and are likely to feel sad or angry. - 4-5 year olds come to understand that the mind can represent objects and events accurately or inaccurately - Middle to Late childhood is only beyond early childhood years that children have a deepening appreciation of the mind itself rather than just an understanding of mental stages. Not until middle to late The Information-Processing Approach childhood do children see the mind as an active constructor of knowledge or processing center - Adolescence is important changes in metacognition also take place during adolescence. The increase metacognitive ability results in more effective cognitive functioning and learning. 27. Describe the three steps in the Good Information-Processing Model. - Children are taught by parents or teachers to use a particular strategy. With practice, they learn about its characteristics and advantages for learning specific knowledge. - Teachers may demonstrate similarities and differences in multiple strategies in a particular domain. This leads to better relational knowledge. - At this point, students recognize the general benefits of using strategies, which produces general strategy knowledge. They learn to attribute knowledge successful learning outcomes to the efforts they make in evaluating, selecting, and monitoring strategy use
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