Ed Psy 330: Week 8
Ed Psy 330: Week 8 Ed Psy 330
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology Emma Eiden 1. List the five time-spans of planning (Yinger, 1980). - Five time-spans of planning include daily planning, weekly planning, unit planning, term planning, and yearly planning based on Five Time Spans of Teacher Planning and Their Occurrences over the School Year. 2. List three concerns regarding planning - Planning is a key dimension of successful teaching. Develop organized plans and try to carry them out, but be flexible; as a year, month, week, or days unfolds, adapt to changing circumstances. 3. Define what behavioral objectives are, and the three parts Mager believes they should have. - Behavioral objectives are statements that communicate proposed changes in students’ behavior to reach desired levels of performance. Mager stressed that behavioral objectives about have three parts: student’s behavior that focuses on what the student will learn or do, conditions under which the behavior will occur that states how the behavior will be evaluated or tested, and finally the idea of performance criteria which determines what level of performance will be acceptable. 4. Identify the levels of Bloom's cognitive domain. - Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy has six objectives that include: - Knowledge: students have the ability to remember information - Comprehension: students understand the information and can explain in it their own words. For example: an objective might be to explain or discuss how a computer can effectively be used for word processing - Application: students use knowledge to solve real-life problems - Analysis: students break down complex information into smaller parts and relate information to other information - Synthesis: students combine elements and create new information - Evaluation: students make good judgments and decisions 5. Compare and contrast Mager's technique of behavioral objectives with Bloom's cognitive taxonomy system, including criticisms of both methods. - Behavioral objectives are statements that communicate proposed changes in students’ behavior to reach desired levels of performance like student’s behavior, conditions under which the behavior will occur, and performance criteria Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology - Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy is classified educational objectives into three domains like cognitive, affective, and psychomotor 6. Identify the levels of the affective domain. - Receiving: students become aware of or attend to something in the environment - Responding: students become motivated to learn and display a new behavior as a result of an experience - Valuing: students become involved in, or committed to, some experience - Organizing: students integrate a new value into an already existing set of values and give it proper priority - Value Characterizing: students act in accordance with the value and are firmly committed to it 7. Identify the levels of the psychomotor domain. - Reflex movements: students respond involuntarily without conscious thought to a stimulus such as blinking when an object unexpectedly hurtles their way - Basic fundamentals: students make basic voluntary movements that are directed towards a particular purpose, such as grasping a microscope knob and being able to correctly turn it - Perceptual abilities: students use their senses, such as seeing, hearing, or touching, to guide their skill efforts, such as watching how to hold an instrument in science, and listening to instructions on how to use it - Physical abilities: students develop general skills of endurance, strength, flexibility, and agility, such as running long distances or hitting a softball - Skilled movements: students perform complex physical skills with some degree of proficiency, such as effectively sketching a drawing - Non-discussive behaviors: students communicate feelings and emotions through bodily actions, such as doing pantomimes or dancing to communicate a musical piece 8. Discuss the update of Bloom's knowledge and cognitive process dimensions. - In the update of Bloom’s knowledge and cognitive process dimensions where are categories that have been added: - Factual: the basic elements students must know to be acquired with a discipline or solve problems in it (technical vocabulary and sources of information) - Conceptual: the interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that allow them to function together (such as periods of geological time and forms of business ownership Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology - Procedural: How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills (like skills used in painting with watercolors and interviewing techniques) - Metacognitive: knowledge of cognition and awareness of one’s own cognition (like knowledge of outlining and strategies for remembering things) - There were also six categories with a less complex and more complex theory behind them that were added in the update: - Remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create 9. Discuss the concept of direct instruction and its purpose. - Direct instruction is structured, teacher-centered approach focused on academic activity that is characterized by teacher direction and control, high teacher expectations for student progress, and keeping negative affect to a minimum. The main focus of direct instruction is academic activity. Teacher direction and control take place when the teacher chooses students’ learning task, directs students’ learning of the tasks, and minimizes the amount of nonacademic talk. The teacher sets high standards for performance and expects students to reach these levels of excellence. 10. Describe the cross-cultural comparisons in math education. - Asian students consistently outperformed American students in math. The longer the students were in school, the wider the gap became, and the lowest difference was in first grade and the highest of in the eleventh grade. Differences were found between American and Asian parents. American parents had much lower expectations for the children’s education and achievement of the students than the Asian parents. American parents were more likely to say their children’s math achievement was due to innate ability; the Asian parents were more likely to say their child’s math achievement was the consequence of hard work, effort, and training. Overall though, Asian students were more likely to do math homework because Asian parents were more likely to help their children than American parents were. 11. State the general purpose of advance organizers and distinguish between two specific types and their purposes. - Advanced organizers are teaching activities and techniques that establish a framework and orient students to material before it is presented - Expository advance organizers are organizers that provide students with new knowledge that will orient them to the upcoming lesson Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology - Comparative advance organizers are organizers that introduce new material by connecting it with the students’ prior knowledge 12. Examine the role of questioning and discussing in lecture, and the gender differences that occur in discussion. - It is necessary to integrate questions and discussion in teacher- centered instruction, even though it may be challenging. Teachers should respond to each student’s learning needs while maintaining the group’s interest and attention. It also to distribute participation widely while also retaining the enthusiasm of eager volunteers. Another challenge is allowing students to contribute while still maintaining the focus on the lesson. Girls are much more likely to want to get involved with the lesson while still staying in focus while it is harder for boys to keep attention. 13. State the challenges of seatwork for both the teacher and student. - Some challenges of seatwork for teachers are students are keeping track of what the rest of the class is doing, keeping students on-task, dealing with the varying paces at which students work, selecting or creating seatwork that is clear and meaningful, matching seatwork to students’ varying levels of achievement, and collecting, correcting, recording, and returning seatwork assignments. - Some challenges that students have been dealing with seatwork include completing assigned work on their own, understanding how and when to obtain the teacher’s help, understanding the norms for assisting papers, and learning how to be effective in obtaining help from their peers. 14. Discuss the best practices for lecturing and use of questions. - Strategies for Lecturing include: - Be prepared: spend time preparing and organizing what you will present - Keep lectures short and intersperse them with questions and activities - Make the lecture interesting and exciting: thin k about what you can say that will motivate students’ interest in a topic - Follow a designated sequence and include certain key components - Strategies for effective use of questions include: - Use fact-based questions as entrees into thinking-based questions - Avoid yes/no questions and leading questions: don’t overuse fact- based questions because they tend to produce rote learning rather than learning for understanding - Leave enough time for students to thin about answers Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology - Ask clear, purposeful, brief, and sequences questions: avoid being vague and plan ahead so that questions are meaningful to the topic being learned - Monitor how you respond to student’s answers: provide feedback that is tailored to each student and their learning levels - Be aware of when it is best to pose a question to the entire class or to a particular student: asking a specific question can make a particular student not want to answer it. - Encourage students to ask questions: praise them for good questions 15. Describe what is involved in mastery learning. - Mastery learning involves learning one topic or concept thoroughly before moving on to a more difficult one. A successful mastery learning approach involves: - Specify the learning task or lesson. Develop precise instructional objectives while also establishing mastery standards - Break the course into learning that are aligned with instructional objectives - Plan instructional procedures to include corrective feedback to students if they fail to master the material at an acceptable level. The corrective feedback might take place through supplemental materials, tutoring, or small-group instruction - Give an end of unit or end of course test that evaluates whether the students has mastered all the material at the acceptable level 16. Critique mastery learning, and state which area mastery learning seems to be especially beneficial in. - Some studies indicate that mastery learning is effective in increasing the time that students spend on learning tasks, but others find it less supportive for mastery learning. Outcomes of mastery learning depend on the teacher’s skill in planning and executing their strategies. Mastery learning seems to be the most useful in the teaching of remedial reading classes. A well-organized mastery learning program for remedial reading allows students to progress their own rates based on their skills, their motivation, and the time they have to learn 17. Describe Cooper's research and conclusions with regard to homework. - Harris Cooper suggests that in the United States homework in the course of more friction between school and home than any other aspect of education. A key aspect of the debate about whether elementary school children should be assigned homework is the type of homework assigned. Homework should be a way for children to expand and be creative on the material that they learned earlier in that Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology unit. In Cooper’s research, it noticed that that homework began to have a payoff in middle school. - Homework has more positive effects when it is distributed over a period of time rather than done all at once - Homework effects are greater in subjects like math, reading, and English than for science and social studies - For middle school students, one or two hours of homework a night is optimal. For high school students benefit from even more hours of homework, but it is unclear what a maximum number of hours ought to be 18. Evaluate teacher-centered instruction. - Critics say that teacher-centered instruction often leads to passive, rote learning, and inadequate opportunities to construct knowledge and understanding. They also criticize teacher-centered instruction as producing overly structured and rigid classrooms, inadequate attention to students’ socioeconomic development, external rather than internal motivation to learn, too much reliance on paper and pencil tasks, few opportunities for real-world learning, and too little collaborative learning in small groups. Critics often are leveled by advocates of learner-centered planning and instruction. 19. Discuss the fourteen principles of learner-centered planning and instruction. - (Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors) Nature of the learning process- the learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning from information and experience - Goals of the learning process- the successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge - Construction of knowledge- the successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways - Strategic thinking- the successful learner can create a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex goals - Thinking about thinking- higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative and critical thinking - Context of learning- learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices - (Motivational and Instructional Factors) Motivational and emotional influences on learning- what and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the learner’s emotional states, beliefs, interests, goals, and habits of thinking Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology - Intrinsic motivation to learn- the learner’s creativity, higher-order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. - Effects of motivation on effort- acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice - (Developmental and Social Factors) Developmental influences on learning- as individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning - Social influences on learning- learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communications with others - (Individual difference factors) Individual differences in learning- learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity - Learning and diversity- learning is most effective when differences in learners’ linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds are taken into account - Standards and assessment- setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress, including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment, are integral parts of the learning process 20. Explain problem-based learning. - Problem-based learning emphasizes real-life problems solving .A problem-based curriculum exposes students to authentic problems like those that crop up in everyday life. Problem-based learning is a learner- centered approach that focuses on a problem to be solved through small-group efforts. 21. Describe what "essential questions" are. - Essential questions are questions that reflect the heart of the curriculum, the most important things that students should explore and learn. 22. Compare and contrast "pure" discovery learning with guided discovery learning. - Discovery learning is learning in which students construct an understanding on their own while guided discovery learning is learning in which students are encouraged to construct their understanding with the assistance of teacher-guided questions and directions 23. Explain what the advocates of learner-centered instruction say, as well as the comments of the method's critics. - The learner-centered approach to lesson planning and instruction is positive in many ways. The principals encourage teachers to help Topic 8: Planning, Instructional, and Technology students actively construct their understanding, set goals and plan, think deeply and creatively, monitor their learning, solve real-world problems, develop more positive self-esteem and control their emotions, be internally motivated, learn in a developmentally appropriate way, collaborate effectively with others, evaluate their learner preferences, and meet challenging standards. Critics of learner- based instruction argue that is gives too much attention to the process of learning and not to the process of learning and not enough to academic content. Some people stress that learner-centered instruction works better in some subjects than in others stress that learner-centered instruction can be effective. They also say that learner-centered instruction is less effective at the beginning level of instruction in the field. 24. Discuss the five views on how to use technology to improve students' understanding developed by Stone Wiske and her colleagues. - Evaluate which topics are worth understanding - Think about what students should understand about a topic - Pay attention to how students develop and demonstrate understanding - Consider how students and teachers assess learning - Reflect on how students and teachers can learn together 25. Discuss the best practices for choosing and using technology in the classroom. - Choose technology with an eye towards how it can help students actively explore - Look for ways to use technology as part of collaborative and real-world learning - Choose technology that presents positive models for students - Your teaching skills are critical, regardless of the technology you use - Continue to learn about technology yourself and increase your technological competence
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