Ed Psy 330: Week 9
Ed Psy 330: Week 9 Ed Psy 330
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning Emma Eiden 1. Define motivation. - Motivation is the process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior. 2. Define incentives as the term is used in the behavioral perspective and what advocates of incentives feel. - Incentive in a behavioral perspective is positive or negative stimuli or events that can motivate a student’s behavior. Advocates of the use of incentives emphasize that they add interest or excitement to the class and direct attention toward appropriate behavior and away from inappropriate behavior. Another type of incentives focuses on allowing students to do something special like playing computer games or going on field trips as means of rewards for their good work. 3. State four assumptions Maslow made about the nature of the person. - Maslow view that students must satisfy their need for food before they can achieve. Abraham Maslow is associated with the humanistic perspective that stresses students’ capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny and other positive qualities. He also talked about the Maslow hierarchy or needs that talked about the nature of a person. This concept says that an individual needs must be satisfied in this sequence: physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. 4. Discuss the humanistic view of motivation, including Maslow's concept of self-actualization, listing and describing the first four levels in his hierarchy of needs. - Maslow’s concept of self-actualization is the highest and most elusive of Maslow’s need which is the motivation to develop one’s full potential as a human being. According to the hierarchy of needs an individual’ needs must be satisfied in this sequence: - Physiological: Hunger, thirst, sleep - Safety: ensuring survival, such as protection from war and crime - Love and Belongingness: security, affection, and attention from others - Esteem: feeling good about oneself - Self-actualization: realization of one’s potential 5. Discuss how the cognitive perspective of motivation differs from that of the behavioral perspective and what the cognitive perspective recommends. Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning - According to the cognitive perspective on motivation, students’ thoughts guide their motivation. Their interests focus on such ideas as students’ internal motivation to achieve, their attributions, of success or failure, and their belief that they can effectively control their environment. The behavioral perspective sees the student’s motivation as a consequence of external incentives while the cognitive perspective argues that external pressures should be deemphasized. The cognitive perspective recommends that students should be given more opportunities and responsibility for controlling their own achievement. 6. Describe the nature of the cognitive and aesthetic needs. - The ultimate need in Maslow's theory is that for self-actualization. This is a need to capitalize on one's abilities and reach one's full potential. Maslow believed that the greatest duty of a school was to help the students self-actualize. Schools should identify each student's strengths and help the student develop completely in those areas. In addition to the cognitive needs, Maslow also felt aesthetic needs operate within each individual. This refers to a need for beauty. It explains why people enjoy having pictures in their homes rather than empty walls, even though the pictures serve no practical purposes. In children as well as adults, it explains the preference for clothing with some sort of decorations, rather than plain clothing. Satisfying this set of needs requires that schools allow some means of self-expression, such as decorating lockers or book covers. Not allowing some sort of activity to meet these needs could lead to frustration and resentment. 7. Discuss the criticisms of Maslow's theory. - Some criticisms of Maslow’s theory argue that it is very difficult to study scientifically because it is hard to test. It requires deep investigation of the inner reasons and choices of a person’s behavior and personality. Simple observation of external behavior may not indicate the reason for a person's motivation. However, much of the research on the theory indicates that many people may not grow through the hierarchy in the proposed order. Regardless of the problems with Maslow's theory, it provides an excellent philosophy justifying practices in school that go beyond providing an education. It is also provides a viable method for creating motivation. 8. Distinguish between extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. - Extrinsic motivation is the external motivation to do something to obtain something else (a means to an end), while intrinsic motivation is Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning the internal motivation to do something for its own sake (and end in itself). 9. Identify the two factors that increase students' internal motivation and intrinsic interest in school tasks. - Evidence strongly favors establishing a classroom climate in which students are intrinsically motivated to learn. A student may study hard for a test because it is a subject that the student truly enjoys. Also, one recent study found that intrinsic motivation was positively linked with grades and standardized test scores and was negatively related to achievement outcomes. Students are more likely and motivated to learn when they are given choices, become absorbed in challenges that match their skills, and receive rewards. 10. Discuss the best practices for increasing student self- determination and choice, and how these variables relate to education. - Be competent and motivated: become an expert about the subject matter, show enthusiasm when you teach, and present yourself as a model who is intrinsically motivated. - Create an optimal match: a good strategy is to develop and maintain an optimal match between what you challenge students to do and what their skills are. Encourage students to achieve challenging but reasonable goals. - Remove distractions from the classroom. - Raise confidence: provide students with both instructional and emotional support that encourages them to tackle learning with confidence and a minimum of anxiety. 11. Know what flow is, those factors that increase the likelihood it will occur, and the best practices for helping students achieve flow. - Flow is used to describe optimal experiences in life. Flow occurs most often when people develop a sense of mastery and are absorbed in a state of concentration while they engage in an activity. Flow occurs when individuals are engaged in challenges they find neither too difficult nor too easy. Perceived levels of challenges and skill can result in different outcomes. Flow is most likely to occur in areas in which students are challenged and perceive themselves as having a high degree of skill. When students’ skills are high but the activity provides little challenge, the result is boredom. When students face a challenging task that they don’t believe they have adequate skills to master, they experience anxiety. Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning 12. Discuss those situations in which classroom rewards can be useful and how rewards can increase intrinsic motivation. - Classroom rewards can be useful because they are an incentive to engage in tasks in which bas the goal is to control the behavior and to convey information about mastery. When rewards are offered that convey information about mastery, students’ feelings of competence are likely to be enhanced. It helps with student motivation when there is an external reward offered. However, rewards do not always decrease a student’s intrinsic motivation. Verbal awards can be used as well. 13. Describe what happens to intrinsic/extrinsic motivation as students develop. - When a child develops, their ability to grow intrinsically or extrinsically goes down tremendously. From high school age, or from 9-12 grade is when students respond best to praise. It is important that a child learns to be intrinsic or extrinsic. 14. Describe the three factors related to the types of attributions a person makes, their relationship to expectations of future success or failure, and the feelings that may result from these attributions. - The attribute theory is a theory that individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own behavior and performance. - Locus: whether the cause is internal or external to the actor - Stability: the extent to which the cause remains the same or changes - Controllability: the extent to which the individual can control the cause 15. Discuss the criticisms and strong points of Weiner's theory. - The current strategy is not to expose students to models who handle tasks with ease and demonstrate success is not to expose students to models who struggle to learn how to deal with frustration, persist in the face of difficulties, and those who constructively cope with failure. When students fail or do poorly on a test or an assignment, they attribute the outcome to certain cause. Critics believe this is not the best for some explanations of student behavior because all look at success and failure differently and cope with it accordingly. 16. Discuss how students with "mastery" and "helpless" orientations differ. - Mastery motivation is a task-oriented response to difficult or challenging circumstances that focus on learning strategies and the process of achievement rather than the outcome. Helpless orientation Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning is a response to challenges and difficulties in which the individual feels trapped by the difficulty and attributes the difficulty to a lack of ability. 17. Define the concept of self-efficacy, how high- and low-efficacy students differ, and the best practices for improving a student's self- efficacy. - Self-efficacy is the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes. Student learn much more from your teachers with a sense of high self-efficacy than from those beset by low self-efficacy often become mired in classroom problems and are inclined to say that low students ability is the reason their students are not learning. Schools are starting to have higher expectations and are making sure that their students go by a higher level of learning, cooperating, and understanding. 18. Discuss the effects of teacher expectations, and how their expectations differ depending on the ability level of students. - Teachers have different levels of expectations for their students depending on the level of work they are working on and if they see a desire to want to get the education that is in front of them. Teachers often have more positive expectations for both really high achievement and very low achievement students. Their expectations are likely to influence the students so they work harder towards the goal of a good education. 19. Discuss the relationship of the quality of teacher-student interaction to motivation. - How hard a student will work depends on how much they expect to accomplish. They will succeed if they expect to succeed. Teachers should have a good relationship with their students, one where they can be open and invite children to ask questions or seek further help if necessary. Interaction with students ensures success and makes children more motivated to try harder and accomplish their work. 20. Discuss the roles of socioeconomic status and ethnicity in motivation, with particular attention to the research performed by Graham. - Socioeconomic status and ethnicity plans a large party in students dealing with motivation and attention. There is a lot of racial expectations and generalization when it comes to teaching children so it can be difficult when a student comes from an ethnic background. Their motivation and desire to learn can be dramatically affected Topic 9: Motivation, Teaching, and Learning because of it. A special concern among educators is to find ways to support the achievement efforts of ethnic minorities, many that come from low-income households and low socioeconomic backgrounds. It is important to further consider the nature of schooling that primarily serve ethnic minority students. 21. Distinguish between failure syndrome students and low- achieving students, and describe the two cognitive retraining methods for students who display failure syndrome. - Failure syndrome is described by teachers because teachers will describe students that approach assignments and their school with low achievement levels. These students give up very easily on assignments and overall just do not try very hard because they believe that they will fail no matter what. Students with low-achievement try a little bit but not to what their full potential can be. 22. Differentiate between the three strategies frequently used by students who protect their self-worth by avoiding failure. - Guide students in setting challenging but reachable goals - Help students strengthen the link between their effort and self-worth. Tell them to take pride in their effort and minimize social comparison. - Encourage students to have positive beliefs about their abilities.