Ed Psy 330: Week 11
Ed Psy 330: Week 11 Ed Psy 330
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching Emma Eiden 1. List and describe the five purposes of standardized testing. - Provide information about students’ process - Diagnose students’ strengths and weaknesses - Provide evidence for placement of students in specific programs - Provide information for planning and improving instruction - Contribute to accountability 2. Explain standards-based tests and high-stakes testing and their role in accountability. - Standardized tests are a test that have uniform procedures for administration and scoring and often allows a student’s performance to be compared with the performance of the other students at the same age or grade level on a national basis. Standards-based tests are tests that students are expected to have mastered before they can be promoted to the next grade or permitted to graduate. High-stakes testing is the process of using tests in a way that will have important consequences for the student, affecting such decisions as whether the student will be promoted or be allowed to graduate. Schools that use some of these forms of testing often require students who do not pass the tests to attend special programs in the summer that will help the reach a minimum level of competency that is required by the school system 3. Describe what a norm group is and what it should include. - Norm group is the group of individuals previously tested that provides a basis for interpreting a test score. The norm-referenced test is based on national norms when the norm group consists of a nationally representative group of students. The teacher can see how the class as a whole is preforming in relation to the general population of students. 4. Define validity, and five specific types of validity. - Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure and whether inferences about the test scores are accurate. There are many other types of validity that include: - Content Validity: a test’s ability to sample the content that is to be measured - Criterion Validity: a test’s ability to predict a student’s performance as measured by other assessments or criteria - Concurrent Validity: the relation between a test’s scores and other criteria that are currently (concurrently) available Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching - Predictive Validity: the relation between test scores and the student’s future performance - Construct Validity: the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular construct. A construct is an unobservable trait or characteristic of a person, such as intelligence, learning, style, personality, or anxiety 5. Define reliability and three specific types of reliability. - Reliability is the extent to which a test produces a consistent, reproducible score - Test-retest reliability: the extent to which a test yields the same performance when a student is given the same test on two occasions - Alternate-forms reliability: reliability judged by giving different forms of the same test on two different occasions to the same group of students to determine how consistent their scores are - Split-high reliability: reliability judged by dividing the test items into two halves, such as the odd-numbered and even-numbered items. The scores on the two sets of items are compared to determine how consistently the students performed across each set. 6. Discuss the issue of fairness and bias in testing. - There are some issues with fairness and bias in testing that include dumbing down the curriculum with great emphasis on rote memorization than on problem-solving and critical-thinking, teaching the information to the test, discrimination against low-socioeconomic status, and ethnicity minority children. 7. Distinguish between aptitude and achievement testing. - Aptitude test is a type that is used to predict a student’s ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education. Achievement test a test that measures what the student has learned or what skills the student has mastered. 8. Describe what diagnostic testing is and the typical diagnostic sequence. - Diagnostic testing consists of a relatively in-depth evaluation of a specific area of learning. Its purpose is to determine the specific learning needs of a student so that those needs can be met through regular or remedial instruction. Reading and math are the two areas in which standardized tests are often used diagnosis. Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching 9. Identify why, from a constructivist viewpoint, state standards-based tests have the wrong format, and what format construction-based assessments should include. - Standardized tests are not perfect methods of assessing students; no perfect method exists. Caution should always be used in interpreting their results. An individual student's score may vary depending on mood, motivation, and many other factors when taking a test. The average score of a class of students could vary because of not only the teacher's effectiveness or the curriculum used, but also a function of the nature of the students in the class. Some believe that some tests should be more on a survey base or should be a better evaluation of a student’s skillset and overall learning process rather than what they learned just from that unit to avoid “learning for the exam”. 10. State the possible advantages and uses of high-stakes testing. - There are some positive advantages and uses of high stakes testing that include improved student performance, more time teaching the subjects tested, high expectations for all students, identification of poorly performing schools, teachers, and administrators, and improved confidence in schools as test scores increase 11. Discuss the criticisms of state standards-based tests. - There are some criticsm of state standards-based tests that include dumping down the curriculum with greater emphasis on rote memorization, teaching to the test (where the teacher only teaches the information found on the exam), and discrimination against low- income, low-socioeconomic-status and ethnic minority children. 12. Discuss the aim of the No Child Left Behind Act and its criticisms. - In No Child Left Behind, states are required to create an accountability system that ensures students are making adequate annual progress in the subject areas. Schools that fail to have adequate test scores do not receive enough funding for their student programs. Under programming schools are to be given special help however, but they must give parent the option of moving their children to better- performing schools. Some critics argue that No Child Left Behind that not funding schools that are doing poorly are just the opposite of what should be happening. Some critics stress that using a single score from a test as the sole indicator of students’ and teachers’ progress and competence represents a very narrow aspect of their skills. Finally, there is the increase cost of carrying out standardized testing on a Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching state-wide basis including creating tests, administering them, scoring them, and reporting their results to the federal government, so overall just cost too much money for not a very good representation of the students and teachers are the school that is tested. NCLB does have advocates. It is argued that scrutiny will lead to closer monitoring of the quality of teaching and teachers. Setting proficiency levels may stimulate the development of clear objectives that all students must meet. Since the test scores will be broken-down into subgroups, the progress of underserved students, such those with limited English proficiency, will be more closely watched and their education subsequently improved. This goal of the law is why it is called No Child Left Behind. 13. Explain what the Praxis I, II, and III measure, when each is typically administered, and the criticisms of the tests. - Praxis tests are used by states for licensing of teacher candidates assesses basic skills or general academic ability, subject-matter knowledge, and/or pedagogical knowledge. The Praxis tests consist of Praxis I, II, and III. Praxis II tests are essentially exit exams that typically are taken in the junior or senior year of undergrad school to ensure that students know their specialty content areas and/or effective pedagogy before rewarding a preliminary teaching certificate. Praxis III tests are assessments of classroom teaching performance and are typically administered during the first year of teaching and can be used as part of a licensing decision. They include essays, oral response tests, listening tasks, portfolio reviews, video stimulus, and in-class observation. 14. Discuss the best practices for improving students' test-taking skills. - Read the instructions carefully - Read the items carefully - Keep track of the time and work quickly enough to finish the test - Skip difficult items and return to them later - Make informed guesses instead of omitting items, if scoring favors doing so - Follow directions carefully in making the answer. Make sure students know how to do all the items required - Check to be sure that the appropriate response was marked on the answer sheet - Go back and check answers if time permits. 15. Explain the purpose of descriptive statistics. Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching - Descriptive statistics are numbers that are used to summarize and describe data. Descriptive statistics are typically distinguished from inferential statistics. With descriptive statistics you are simply describing what is or what the data shows. With inferential statistics, you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone. For instance, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the population might think. Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions; we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data. 16. Differentiate between the terms "measure of central tendency" and "measure of variability." - A measure used to describe data; the mean, median, and mode are measures of central tendency while Variability can also be defined in terms of how close the scores in the distribution are to the middle of the distribution. Using the mean as the measure of the middle of the distribution, the variance is defined as the average squared difference of the scores from the mean. 17. Differentiate between the mean, median, and mode. - Mean: the numerical average of a group of scores - Median is the score that falls exactly in the middle of a distribution of scores after they have been arranged from highest to lowest - Mode is the score that occurs 18. Differentiate between the "range" and "standard deviation." - Range is the distance between the highest and lowest scores while standard deviation is a measure of how much a set of scores varies on the average around the mean of the scores. 19. Describe the four types of scores test publishers often provide in addition to the "raw score." - Raw scores are the number of items the student answered correctly on the test. - Percentile-rank scores are the percentage of distribution that lies at or below the score - Stanine score is a 9-point scale that describes a student’s performance Topic 11: Standardized Testing and Teaching - Grade-equivalent score is a score that indicates a student’s performance in relation to grade level and months of the school year, assuming it is a 10-month school year - Standard scores is a score expressed as a deviation from the mean that involves the standard deviation 20. Explain what researchers who have compared standardized tests to portfolio assessment scores for White and minority students have found. - Teachers can use standardized test scores from the end of the previous year in planning their instruction for the next year and as a way to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction after content and skills have been caught. The research by White compared traditional standardized-test results and portfolio assessment performance of first and second graders in a medium-sized classroom in an urban setting. They analyzed the relative contribution of students’ background characteristics of their performances. At both grades, the gap in performance between black and non-Latino white students was reduced by about half in portfolio assessment when compared with scores on standardized tests. The portfolio assessment holds considerable promise by focusing instruction on higher-level thinking skills, providing useful feedback to teachers about students’ thinking skills, and emphasizing real world problem solving. However, in this study, portfolio assessment had mixed effects on equalizing the differences in performance of student with different backgrounds and experiences.