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Physcial Geography Chapter 13

by: Ashley Trecartin

Physcial Geography Chapter 13 GEOG 110

Marketplace > Southwestern Michigan College > Science > GEOG 110 > Physcial Geography Chapter 13
Ashley Trecartin

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This is the rocks and minerals portion of the chapter that will appear on the second unit test at the end of October.
Physical Geography
Mr. Thomas
Class Notes
physcial, geography, rocks, minerals




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 110 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Mr. Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Science at Southwestern Michigan College.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 13: Earth Materials Plate Tectonics has been omitted due to the fact it was on the first unit test and will not be appearing on the same test the rock and mineral information will be on. I. Earth’s Planetary Structure A. Core 1. A seismic wave is a traveling wave of energy released during an  earthquake or other shock.  2. A sensitive instrument called a seismograph can record seismic waves  from an earthquake, even if the earthquake happens thousands of miles  away.  3. Earth’s innermost section, the core, contains one third of earth’s mass and  has a radius of about 21oo miles.  4. Earth’s inner core has a radius of about 6oo miles.  5. The outer core forms a 15oo mile thick band around the inner core.  B. Mantle 1. At about 1792 miles thick and taking up about 2/3s of Earth’s total mass,  the mantle is the largest of earth’s interior zones.  2. The communication between the mantle and the crust can be seen through  a change of density which is called discontinuity, that can be seen with a  decrease in the speed of seismic waves as they travel though their internal  boundary. Scientists called his zone the Mohorovicic discontinuity, or  Moho for short.  C. Crust 1. The solid part of the earth is the crust, which has the most types of rocks  that are seen in a multitude of ways around the surface.  2. Oceanic crust is composed of basalt, which is a heavy dark colored, iron­ rich rock, high in silicon and magnesium.  3. Continental crust comprises the major landmasses that are exposed to the  atmosphere.  D. Lithosphere and Asthenosphere 1. An elastic solid is a solid that withstands stress with little deformation  until a maximum value is reached before it breaks.  2. Lithosphere is a generic term for the solid part of the earth system.  3. Under the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, which is a 18o km thick layer  from the upper mantle that responds to stress by deforming and flowing  slowly rather than be fracturing.  4. A plastic solid is any solid material that changes it shape under stress and  retains that deformed shape after stress is relieved.  5. Scientists believe that tectonic forces, which are large­scale forces that  break and deform Earth’s crust, are from earthquakes and responsible for  building the mountains, come from movement in the plastic atmosphere.  II. Minerals A. A mineral is an inorganic, naturally occurring, crystalline substance represented  by a specific chemical formula.  1. A crystalline substance displays a specific, repeated 3D structure at the  molecular level.  2. Charged particles, or ions, that form part of a molecule in a mineral may  leave or be traded for other substances, generally weakening the mineral  structure and forming the chemical basis of rock weathering.  3. The two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, oxygen and silicon  frequently combine to form silica.  4. Silicate minerals are compounds of oxygen and silicon that also include  one or more metals and/or bases.  III. Rocks A. A rock is a consolidated aggregate of various types of minerals or a consolidated  aggregate of multiple individual pieces of the same kind of mineral.  B. A mass of consolidated rock that has not been weathered is termed bedrock.  C. Bedrock may be exposed at the surface of Earth, or it may be overlain by a cover  of broken and decomposed rock fragments called regolith.  D. A mass of exposed bedrock is typically referred to as an outcrop.  E. Igneous Rock 1. When molten rock material cools and solidifies, it becomes an igneous  rock.  2. Molten rock matter below Earth’s surface is called magma, however  molten rock material at the surface is known specifically as lava.  3. Molten material that solidifies at Earth’s surface creates extrusive igneous  rock, also called volcanic rock.  4. Very explosive eruptions of molten rock material can cause the  accumulation of fragments of volcanic rock, dust­sized or larger, called  pyroclastic, or tephra, that will settle from the air.  5. When molten rock beneath earth’s surface changed to a solid it forms  intrusive igneous rock, or plutonic rock.  6. Simple fractures in bedrock are called joints.  F. Sedimentary Rocks 1. Sedimentary rocks are derived from sediment, which is a loose  accumulation of under consolidated fragments.  2. Broken fragments are called clasts.  3. Sedimentary rocks that form from fragments of preexisting rocks, shells,  or bones, are called clastic sedimentary rocks.  4. Organic sedimentary rocks lithify from the remains of organisms, both  plants and animals.  5. Lithified sediments become chemical precipitate sedimentary rocks.  6. Many types of sediment accumulate in distinct layers that are visible after  lithification known as stratification.  7. A bedding plane is the boundary between two sedimentary layers that  represent separate depositional events.  8. Where mismatching strata meet along irregular eroded surfaces that  connect between the rock is called unconformity.  9. Cross bedding is characterized by a pattern of thin sediment layers that  accumulated at an angle to the main strata, after reflecting shifts of  direction by waves along a coast, currents in streams, or winds over sand  dunes.  G. Metamorphic Rocks 1. Metamorphic rocks are typically harder and more compact, have a  reoriented crystalline structure, and are more resistant to weathering.  2. Metamorphism causes minerals to recrystallize and, with enough heat and  pressure, to re­precipitate perpendicular to the applied stress, forming  platy surfaces or wavy bands known as foliation.  H. The Rock Cycle 1. The rock cycle is a conceptual model for understanding processes that  generate, alter, transport, and deposited mineral materials to produce  different kinds of rocks. 


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