Ed Psy 330: Week 12
Ed Psy 330: Week 12 Ed Psy 330
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Eiden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ed Psy 330 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Summer 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education Psychology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Topic 12: Classroom Assessment Emma Eiden 1. Differentiate between preinstructional, formative and summative assessment. - Preinstructional assessment is informal observation. Formal assessments are assessments during the course of instruction rather than after they are completed. Summative assessments are assessments after instructions are finished to document student performance; these are also called “formal assessments”. 2. Recognize the "do's and don'ts" of using praise during formative assessment. - Dos: focus on specific accomplishments, attribute success to effort and ability, praise spontaneously, refer to prior achievement, individualize and use variety, give praise immediately, praise correct strategies leading to success, praise accurately with credibility, praise privately, and focus on progress - Don’t: focus on general or global achievement, attribute success to luck or other’s help, praise predictability, ignore prior achievement, give the same praise to all students, give praise much later, ignore strategies and focus on only on outcomes, praise for undeserving performance, praise publicity, and focus on solely on current performance 3. Explain what a learning target is. - A learning target consists of what students should know and be able to do. There should be established criteria for judging whether students have attained the learning target. There are many examples of Unit Learning Targets that include: - Students will be able to explain how various cultures are different and how cultures influence people’s beliefs and lives by answering orally a comprehensive set of questions about cultural differences and their effects - Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the parts of a plant by filling in words or a diagram for all parts studied - Students will demonstrate their understanding of citizenship by correctly identifying whether previously unread statements about citizenship are true or false - Students will be able to explain why the America Constitution is important by writing an essay that indicates what would happen if we abolish out Constitution Topic 12: Classroom Assessment - Students will show that they know the different between components of sentences by correctly identifying verbs, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, and pronouns in seven of eight long, complex sentences - Students will be able to multiply fractions by correctly computing right of ten fractions problems - Students will be able to use their knowledge of addition, division, subtractions, and multiplication to solve word problems that are similar to those used in the sixth-grade standardized test - Students will demonstrate their understanding of how visual art conveys ideas and feeling by correctly indicating, orally, how examples of art communication ideas and feelings 4. Describe the concept of instructional validity. - Instructional validity is the extent to which the assessment is a reasonable sample of what went on in the classroom. An important strategy for validity in the classroom assessment is to systematically link learning targets, content, instruction, and assessment. 5. Discuss the culturally responsive strategies for assessing students. - Achievement assessments are designed to determine what students know. Presumably they reflect what has been taught in schools. Achievement tests may embed skills in scenarios that are not relevant to the cultural backgrounds and life experiences of students of color. This does not mean that students of color should not be assessed or that they should not be expected to meet high achievement standards. They should. However, to avoid perpetuating educational inequality through assessment procedures, these students should not always be expected to demonstrate knowledge and terms in skills in terms of contexts with which they are not familiar. More emphasis should be given to evaluating students against their own records; with the focus being on opmental functions and be culturally responsible. Narratives reports, developmental profiles, student-teacher-parent conferences, and anecdotal records should always be included in reporting a student’s progress. 6. Define pluralistic assessment. - Pluralistic assessment is an assessment that is used to test the children who are between the age of 5 to 11, to know if they have enough knowledge ethnically or culturally. 7. Describe six current trends in classroom assessment. - Using at least some performance-based assessment - Examining higher-level cognitive skills Topic 12: Classroom Assessment - Using multiple assessment methods - Using more multiple-choice items to prepare students for taking high- stakes state standards-based tests - Having high performance standards - Using computers as part of assessment 8. Discuss the strengths and limitations of true/false items. - Strengths: the items is useful for outcomes where there are only two possible alternatives (for example: fact or opinion, valid or invalid), Less demand is placed on reading ability than in multiple-choice items, A relatively large number of items can be answered in a typical testing period, Scoring is easy, objective, and reliable - Limitations: It is difficult to write items at a high level of knowledge and thinking that are free from ambiguity, when a statement indications correctly that a statement is false, that response provides no evidence that the student knows what is correct, no diagnostic information by the incorrect answers, and scores are more influenced by guessing than with any other items type 9. Distinguish between selected-response and constructed- response items. - Selected-response items are test items with an objective format in which student responses can be scored quickly. A scoring guide for correct responses is created and can be applied by an examiner or a computer. A constructed-response items an objective test items consisting of two parts: a stem plus a set of possible responses 10. Discuss the strengths and limitations of multiple-choice items and the best practices for writing them. - Write the stem as a question - Give three or four possible alternatives from which to choose - State items and options positively when possible. - Include as much of the item as possible in the stem, thus making the stem relatively long and the alternatives relatively short - Alternatives should grammatically match the stem so that no answers are grammatically wrong - Write items that have a clearly defensible correct or best option - Vary the placement of the correct option - Beware of cues in the length of the options - Don’t expect students to make narrow distinctions among answer choices Topic 12: Classroom Assessment - Do not overuse “None of the above” and “All of the above.” Also avoid using variations of “a” and “b” or “c” and “d”, but not “a”. - Don’t use the exact wording in a textbook when writing a question - Write at least some items that encourage students to engage in higher- level thinking - Use some analogy-based items - Write some case-study items - Write items in which students have to select what is missing or needs to be changed in a scenario you provide 11. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of essay items and the best practice strategies for scoring essay questions. - Strengths: the highest level of learning outcomes (analysis, synthesis, evaluation) can be measured, the integration and application of ideas can be emphasized, preparation time is usually less than for selection- type formats - Limitations: achievement may not be adequately sampled due to the time needed to answer each question, it can be difficult to relate essay responses to intended learning outcomes because of freedom to select, organize, and express ideas, scores are raised by writing skill and bluffing, and lowered by poor handwriting, misspellings, and grammatical errors, and scoring is time consuming, subjective, and possibly unreliable 12. Discuss what "performance assessment" concerns, and the hurdles faced by performance assessment. - Moving from traditional assessment with objectives tests to performance assessment has been described as going from “knowing” to “showing”. Performance assessments include what is commonly thought of as students’ actual performances, as well as papers, projects, oral presentations, experiments, and portfolios. Many educational psychologists support the increased use of performance- based assessment. They contend that performance assessments include students more in their learning, encourage higher-level thinking skills, can measure what is really important in the curriculum, and can tie assessment more to real-world, real-life experiences. 13. Describe what authentic assessment involves and what critics of the movement say. - Authentic assessment is evaluating a student’s knowledge or skill in a context that approximates the real world or real life as closely as possible. Traditional assessment has involved the use of paper-and- pencil tests that are often far removed from real-world contexts. Critics Topic 12: Classroom Assessment of authentic assessment argue that such assessments are not necessarily superior to more conventional assessments such as multiple-choice and essay tests. The proponents of authentic assessment rarely present data in support of the validity of authentic assessments. They also point out that authentic assessments don’t adequately examine knowledge and basic skills. 14. Describe the purpose of a "rubric," four things to consider in preparing a rubric, and the best practices for developing them. - Scoring rubrics involve the criteria that are used to judge performance, what the range in the quality of the performance should look like, what score should be given and what that score means, and how the different levels of quality should be described and differentiated from one another. They should include a scale of possible points to be assigned in scoring works, provide descriptors for each performance criteria to increase reliability and avoid biased scoring, decide whether the rubric will be generic, genre-specific, or task-specific, and decide whether the rubric should be longitudinal. - Match the type of rating with the purpose of the assessment - Share the criteria with students prior to instruction - Build your rubrics from the top, starting from a description of an exemplary performance - Carefully construct the rubric language for each criteria or score - Make rubrics more authentic - Show student models - Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring errors 15. Explain what a portfolio is. - A portfolio is a systematic and organized collection of a student’s work that demonstrates the student’s skills and accomplishments 16. List and describe the four classes of evidence that can be placed in a portfolio. - Four classes of evidence that can be placed in student’s portfolios are artifacts, reproductions, attestations and productions. - Artifacts are documents or products, such as student papers and homework - Reproductions consist of documentation of a student’s work outside the classroom, such as special projects and interviews - Attestations represent the teacher’s or other responsible person’s documentation of the student’s progress. - Productions are documents the student prepares especially for the portfolio. Productions consist of three types of materials: goal statements, reflections, and captions. Students generate goal Topic 12: Classroom Assessment statements about what they want to accomplish with their portfolio, write down their reflections about their work and describe their progress, and create captions that describe each piece of work in the portfolio and its importance. 17. Differentiate between a growth portfolio and a best-works portfolio. - A growth portfolio is a portfolio of work over an extended time frame (throughout the school year or longer) to reveal the student’s progress in meeting learning targets while a best-work portfolio is a portfolio that showcases the student’s most outstanding work 18. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of portfolios. - Learning portfolios have several strengths: their comprehension nature captures the complexity and completeness of the student’s work and accomplishments. They provide opportunities for encouraging student decision making and self-reflection. They motivate students to think critically and deeply. Lastly, they provide an excellent mechanism for evaluating student progress and improvement. The weaknesses are they take considerable time to coordinate and evaluate. Their complexity and uniqueness make them difficult to evaluate, and their reliability is often much lower than that of traditional tests. 19. State and discuss the four purposes of grading. - Administration: grades help determine students’ class rank, credits for graduation, and whether a student should be promoted to the next grade - Informational: grades can be used to communicate with students, parents, and others about student’s work. A grade represents the teacher’s overall conclusion about how well a student has met instructional objectives about learning targets - Motivational: many students work harder because they are extrinsically motivated by a desire for high grades and fear of low grades - Guidance: grades help students, parents, and counselors to select appropriate courses and levels of work for students. They provide information about which students might require special services and what levels of future education students will likely be able to handle 20. Distinguish between norm-referenced and criterion- referenced grading. - Norm-referenced grading is a grading system based on a comparison of a student’s performance with that of other students in the class or of other classes and other students while criterion-referenced grading is a Topic 12: Classroom Assessment grading system based on a certain grade for a certain level of performance regardless of an comparison with the work of other students. 21. Discuss four issues in grading - There are some issues with grading that include: - Should a missed assignment or paper receive a zero? - Should teachers go strictly by the numbers of grading? - Should grading be abolished? - Is there too much grade inflation?
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