BIOL 102 Ch. 31 Fungi Lecture Notes
BIOL 102 Ch. 31 Fungi Lecture Notes BIO 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 102 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 31 Notes (Fungi) • Fungi diverse and widespread o Essential for well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems § Break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients • Body Structure: o Multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts) o Morphology enhances ability to absorb nutrients o Consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption § Maximizes surface-to-volume ratio § Cell walls contain chitin o Divided into cells by septa: pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles o Coenocytic fungi lack septa & have continuous cytoplasmic mass w/ hundreds or thousands of nuclei o Some have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate tissues of their host o Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: form sheaths of hyphae over root and grow into extracellular spaces of root cortex o Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: extend hyphae thru cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of root cell membrane o Mycorrhizal fungi: deliver phosphate ions & minerals to plants (because of mutually beneficial relationship b/w fungi and plant roots) • Sexual reproduction: o Fungal nuclei normally haploid, w/ exception of transient diploid stages during sexual life cycles o Sexual reproduction requires fusion of hyphae from different mating types o Use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate mating type o Plasmogamy: union of cytoplasm from two parent mycelia o In most fungi, haploid nuclei from each part DO NOT fuse right away, coexist in mycelium à called heterokaryon o In some fungi, haploid nuclei pair off 2 per cell à dika yotic o Karyogamy: nuclear fissio § Haploid nuclei fuse, produce diploid ce ls § Diploid phase short-lived & undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spo es • Produce genetic variatio o Molds and yeasts w/ no known sexual stage = deuteromycetes • Fungi more closely related to animals than plants or other eukaryo es o Multicellularity arose separately in animals and f ngi • Fungi were among earliest colonizers of lan s o Fossil evidence indicates fungi formed mutualistic relationships w/ early land plants • Basidiomycetes: o Include mushrooms, puffballs & shelf fun i o Some form mycorrhizae, some plant parasites 2 o Phylum defined by club-like structure called basidium, transient diploid stage in life cyc e § AKA club fung o Many are decomposers of wood o Can produce mushrooms quickly, some produce “fairy rings” • Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human w lfare o Decomposers, mutualists, pathogens o Efficient decomposers or organic material including cellulose and l gnin o Essential recycling of chemical elements b/w living and nonliving orld o Form mutualistic relationships w/ plants, algae, cyanobacteria, & ani als • Fungus-Plant Mutualisms: o Endophytes: fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts § Make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogen § Most endophytes are ascomycetes • Fungus-Animal Mutualisms: o Some fungi share digestive services w/ anima s o Help break down plant material in guts of cows & other grazing mammal o Ants use digestive power of fungi by raising them in “fa ms” • Lichen = symbiotic association b/w photosynthetic microorganism and a fungu o Millions of photosynthetic cells held in mass of fungal hy hae o Photosynthetic component is green algae or cyanobacteri § Occupy inner layer below lichen surfa e 3 • Algae provides carbon compounds • Cyanobacteria provide organic nitrogen • Fungi provide environment for growth § Fungi can reproduce sexually & asexuall § Asexual reproduction = fragmentation or formation of soredia: small clusters of hyphae w/ embedded algae o Fungal component often ascomycete • Fungi as Parasites o 30% of known fungal species = parasites or pathogen o 10-50% of worlds fruit harvest lost due to fungi pe yr o Some fungi that attack food crops are toxic to human • Fungal infection in animals = mycos s o Systemic mycoses spread thru body o Some are opportunistic • Practical Uses of Fung : o Humans eat fungi and use others to make cheese, alcoholic beverages, and bread o Some used to produce antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infect ons o Genetic research on fungi leading to applications in biotechnol gy 4
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