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ARH: Hogarth and Humor

by: Megan Dengler

ARH: Hogarth and Humor ARH 316B

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Art History > ARH 316B > ARH Hogarth and Humor
Megan Dengler
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This covers the first lecture of our "Unit 2" after Exam I. We discussed Caricatures, satires, and the artists associated with this in 18th century Great Britain (Hogarth, Rowlandson, Gillray, Bunb...
Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
Professor Plax
Class Notes
William, Hogarth, thomas, Rowlandson, James, Gillray, henry, Bunbury, progress, Progresses, Modern-moral-subjects, marriage-a-la-mode, Beggar's Opera, arranged, marriages, squanderfield, silvertongue, bangio, syntax, In-Search-Of-The-Picturesque, Monstrous-craw
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
October 4, 2016 Hogarth and Humor - In Great Britain o Great tradition and long history of comical art  Caricature  Political satire o Open society, king had less power - Thomas Rowlandson, the chamber of Genius o Makes fun of the starving artist - In France, there wasn’t as much comical art o There was a royal censor – everything printed had to be approved William Hogarth - Everything in his pictures has a meaning - William Hogarth, Self Portrait, 1745 o Self portraits show how the artists want to be perceived o Analysis  Personal symbol – the pug  He viewed himself as “pugnacious”  Drapery indicates status  Books as base for portrait  Books of art theory that he wrote  Called the Analysis of Beauty  Artist’s pallet with a curvy line written “the line of beauty”  He had deemed that the curved line was the most beautiful line  Calling card  Hogarth began his career as an engraver - Did a series called the “Harlot’s Progress” o Subscription ticket (buy the next image in the story) o Business card for Pharmacist - Boys peeping at nature o Little boys peeping up her skirt o Making fun of the foundations of art in the 18 century  Classical antiquity  Looking to nature - Satire o Considered as marginal art o Broad appeal (mass produced, not expensive) o Often had political content o Scholars at a Lecture, 1736 o The Sleeping Congregation, 1736  Everyone has fallen asleep during the sermon o Orders of the Periwigs, 1761  Makes fun of…  Classical antiquity (and the importance placed on knowing it) o Orderly way of thinking o Classical Orders (follow certain rules of form)  Doric Order (masculine, sturdy warrior)  Ionic Order (willowy maiden, more slender)  Corinthian Order (very ornate, ornamental) o The “Order of the Periwigs”  Imitates a diagram of classical columns  The wearing of wigs o There was a fear of foreign influence  Wigs were derived from French fashion o Sense of patriotism o Masquerades and Operas, 1723  Prints sold cheaply and abundantly  Imagery held no appeal for the “Palladians” o Shaftesbury and followers would have deemed these as vulgar  Analysis  Foreground: theatrical performances o Popular entertainments  Throngs of people waiting to get in  Background: three men oblivious to what is going on and gesturing to the Academy of Arts o There was no academy, but there were small, private ones o The men didn’t see below a certain social level  Hogarth didn’t like Palladians  Frequently satirized - Hogarth was concerned with morality – what the motive is for making certain choices o James Thornhill  The most prominent history painter in Britain in the first half of th 18 century  Had a private academy  Paintings for the dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, 1715  Not the best painter, but it was all Britain had to offer  Most British painters were portraitists, so when there was a need for a serious painting, they were often imported o Hogarth admired Thornhill and wanted to be like him  He wanted to be an important history painter  William Hogarth, Paul Before Felix, 1745  History painting  Not well received  Caricatures were made of Hogarth’s paintings o Burlesque of Paul before Felix o Hogarth was mad that they preferred an Italian, French, or Dutch painter for history painting  William Hogarth, Time Smoking Pictures, 1721 th th The British loved old master paintings (15 -17 century), o They often had a patina on the surface o The varnish on them turned them yellow  There is commentary on the fact that people would fake an old painting using varnish The joke is that the man is smoking the paintings - Made fun of Palladians (Burlington and others), even though they were the ones who would have bought his history paintings o William Hogarth, The Beggar’s Opera, 1729  Made fun of the high Italian opera  Had a cast of ordinary English men (including beggars)  Hogarth was friendly with many of the actors and actresses  Curtain above tells viewers that this is a play - Comic History Paintings o Hogarth called them “modern moral subjects” o Progresses: Hogarth created a series of paintings that created progresses o The Rake’s Progress o The Harlot’s Progress o Marriage a la Mode  Intended to raise questions about the practice of arranged marriages There were a number of scandals where children eloped against the wish of their parents The morality of arranged marriage was treated in literature and other places (a disputed issue)  A series of paintings and engravings  Tells a story There was a descriptive script you could by with it For the most part, the objects in ththimage tell the story o Objects are meaningful to 18 century viewers  Hogarth’s Marriage a la Mode, Scene 1, the Contract, 1744 Characters are characterized by costume and posture o Lord Squanderfield – wearing a French costume slightly out of fashion  He has gout – the rich man’s disease  He is broke because he spent all his money building a big house out the window (workmen outside throwing up their hands because they haven’t been paid) In the style of Blenheim Palace  Has little crowns in the room (one on bed, one over painting) Reference to his status  Points down to his family tree – his nobility goes way back o Squanderfield is making a deal with a merchant  Drawing up a marriage contract between his son and the merchant’s daughter o Son looking in the mirror and wearing out of fashion French clothes  Silk beauty mark on his neck People would put them on their face (quite big) Hiding a syphilitic sore o Silvertongue is whispering in the daughter’s ear, making suggestions o French Fashion (corrupting foreign influence) o Religious paintings in background that allude to suffering and violence o Dogs down below chained together  A common leash for hunting dogs  Just like the son and daughter that will have to be stuck together  Marriage a la Mode, Scene 2, The Morning After Moved into Palladian house (very up to date) There has been an all night party o Candles have burned down o Cards on the floor o They are waking up Book on the floor: Hoyl’s Book of Rules o Rule book for every game of cards o They have been gambling The Son o Still has the silk beauty mark o Dog sniffing his pocket (women’s cap in his pocket) They have squandered a lot of money o Bought a lot of “junk” on the mantelpiece  Fake antiquities o Accountant throwing up hands Cat and fish (cat is predator) Paintings in background o Paintings of saints o Painting with green curtain is covering a nude woman Burned out fireplace o Distance between the man and women o The yawning space of the fireplace was between them  Scene 3, Visit to the Apothecary The count is going to a quack doctor o Apothecary/museum o Wife has beauty marks on her face too The count wants to find a cure for the little girl (she has been infected with syphilis) o Wearing a cap o Clothes are outsized for her  Clothes were passed down and sold to used clothes dealer (not a rich person) o Handkerchief Crazy things in apothecary o Unicorn horn (narwhal) o Head with bone behind it  Head used as an advertising gimmick and the mouth went up and down o Stuffed alligator o Urinal for sick people o Stand used for distilling whiskey  Resembled gallows at Tybern where criminals were hung o Gadget in foreground  Hook women into them to stretch spine and improve posture o Skeleton in closet smooching on wax figure, next to wig on wig stand o Two mummy cases in background  It was believed that a piece of a mummy could extend your life if you ground it up made a potion  Marriage a la Mode Scene 4, The Lever of the Countess What has been going on on her side At her toilette Portrait of Ailvertongue above her bed Silvertongue has tickets to a masquerade ball and is inviting her to come Disliked woman with her husband (known to like hunting) Black boy o Reference to exotic servant o Unpacking basket of junk they have just bought o Reference to Acteon  Statue of man with deer head (refers to being cuckhold – being cheated on by his wife) Scenes of seduction in the paintings behind them Cards on the floor o High stakes gambling  Marriage a la Mode, Scene 5, The Bagnio Bagnio: notorious hotel where prostitutes took their clients Silvertongue flying out the window Count bursting through the door o Figure holding a lantern projects a cross shape Figures in middle imitate shapes of Christ and Mary o Shape of man in middle imitates the dead Christ shape There has been a duel o Dueling was another subject in the air at the time On the wall – a big hanging tapestry that shows an image of the judgement of Solomon Portrait of woman who is a very well known and high class prostitute o Her body is juxtaposed with legs on figure of tapestry Countess is begging for mercy  Marriage a la Mode, Scene 6, Suicide of the Countess She sent out a servant to buy poison which she ingested and now she is doing The mother is holding up their child o Baby has a brace on her leg o She is the count’s daughter because she was born crippled because of Syphilis Father is already taking off her wedding ring Skinny dog stealing pig’s head off table o Poor people’s food Low level of taste o Genre painting of man peeing against wall Broken window  The viewers reaction Heartbroken Wanted another ending or a happy series (Hogarth never did)  Raises moral questions about how this unhappy situation came about because of the arranged marriage Nobody profits A lot of people are hurt and destroyed by it Explores what lies underneath certain choices people make Thomas Rowlandson - Works late in the century - Did lots of caricatures - Prints made by someone else (he worked in watercolor) - Inherited a lot of money from an aunt o When through it quickly (gambling) - Began to pursue art as a means to make a living - Traveled and did a lot of drawings of grand tourists - Satires tended to be more political o Gentle fun poked at high society - The Stare Case, 1780s o At Summerset house where British Royal Academy was o Art lovers falling down the stairs o No one wearing underpants o Makes fun of connoisseurs and art lovers  Staring at a naked woman - Sketches that would be later rendered o Traveling in France, 1790s o The High Life in Venice  Stereotypes of certain nationalities - Lady H*****’s Attitudes o Lady Hamilton didn’t have a good reputation - Did a kind of series, comic strip o Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque, 1790s  Dr. Syntax went on a search around England Carrying art supplies It is raining He is kind of an idiot Partaking of a “not so grand tour” in Britain  People would explore their native land to search for picturesque views  People in background: the family he is leaving behind o Dr. Syntax Loses his Wig James Gillray - Much more political o Hated George III (who rained from 1760-1801) o Hated the royal family - Monstrous Craws o Context  Things hanging from necks  Fake Goiters  Freak show going through England at the time o Advertised as “monstrous craws”  George III wearing women’s clothes on the right  George III’s queen (not dressed nicely)  Prince of Whales (their son)  Ran up huge debts and paid by the government  Known as a glutton  Friction with parents and English citizenry  George III and Queen were known as misers  Deal was finally brokered that Prince of Whale’s debts would be paid for, but nothing more  New coalition feast - To be seen together o Temperance, Enjoying a Frugal Meal  Enjoying poor people food  Pants are patched  Chair covered because it is worn out  Missing painting in frame o A Voluptuary under the horrors of Digestion  Big corpulent fellow  Overflowing chamber pot  Medications to treat constipation and digestive problems  Coat of arms is plate with knife and fork - French Revolution o Scary times o The Zenith of French Glory; - the pinnacle of Liberty, 1793  Man sitting on a street light  Fiddling  Wearing revolutionary garb  Cap with cockade – symbol of you being on the side of revolutionaries  Pants are worn down o Revolutionaries wore different kinds of pants than nobility o Loose fitting pants: “Sans pants”  Red soft cap – Liberty Hat: symbol of revolutionary party  Symbolizes that the revolution has taken over the church  Balance scales tipped out of balance  Religious leaders hung  Background: Dome of Pantheon in flames Henry William Bunbury - Member of nobility o Enjoyed easy life - Educated at Cambridge and did caricatures for his friends o Decided to pursue art - Not a very good artist o Failed at being a serious painter o Did caricatures - Light caricatures that poke gentle fun - A Camp Scene, 1780s o Mother and father want to enlist son in army o Not really an bashing of military life – more about the parents - Went on the grand Tour (stereotyped) o I am enchanted to meet you, 1763  Holding pot of mustard  The French were known for using too much mustard o Grand Tourist and Tutor arriving at a French Inn, 1770s


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