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KIN321 Week 6 Class Notes

by: askcch

KIN321 Week 6 Class Notes 321

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > 321 > KIN321 Week 6 Class Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover Lecture 9 & 10
Introduction to Systemic Exercise Physiology
Dr. Kevin Jacobs
Class Notes
Systemic, Physiology, KIN321
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by askcch on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 321 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Kevin Jacobs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Systemic Exercise Physiology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
KIN321   Class     otes     eek      (9/26­9/30)  ________________________________________________________________________________  From    revious   ection  ­ The Heartand theCardiac Cycle  ­ ControlofCirculationCardiovasculardynamics duringexercise  ________________________________________________________________________________  Lecture 9 Pulmonary Anatomy and Physiology   ● Pulmonary Anatomy   ○ Conducting zone: Trachea, bronchial tree, bronchioles (Anatomical  dead space)  ■ Conduct air to respiratory zone   ■ Humidify and warm air  ○ Respiratory zone: Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar sacs  ■ Exchange of gases between air and blood  ○ Alveoli structure optimizes gas exchange:  2 ■ Extremely large alveolar surface area → 50m for an avg. person  with body surface area of 1.5m   2 ■ Minimal distance from pulmonary capillaries   ● Exercise increases capillary count   ■ High fat content (gas are more soluble in fat than liquid H O)  2 ○ Muscles of inspiration: (always active)  ■ External intercostals  ■ Diaphragm!  ○ Muscles of expiration: (only active during exercise)  ■ Internal intercostals   ■ Abdominal muscles  ● Mechanics of Ventilation   ○ Rest:  ■ Contract diaphragm and external intercostals  ■ Lower oor of thorax, increase thoracic volume, and decrease  intrapulmonary pressure  ■ Atmospheric air rushes in to equilibrate pressure gradient  ■ Passive expiration  ○ Exercise: (needs more rapid gas exchange)  ■ Contract diaphragm and external intercostals + supplementary  inspiratory muscles  ■ Lower oor of thorax, increase thoracic volume, and decrease  intrapulmonary pressure  ■ Atmospheric air rushes in to equilibrate pressure gradient  ■ Active expiration by contracting internal intercostals and  abdominal muscles      ○ Minute ventilation (V ) iE a function of both tidal volume (V ) and T breathing frequency (f )  b ○ V (L/min) = V (L/breath) x f (breath/min)  E T b ○ Optimum minute ventilation during exercise is achieved by increasing  the breathing frequency (similar to increasing heart rate to increase CO)  due to the plateau of TV  ○ Physiological dead space → some alveoli are ventilated, but not  adequately perfused with blood  ■ Usually at the top of the lungs when in an upright position  ● O T2ansport in the Blood  ○ O h2s low solubility in water → ~99% of O is trans2orted in the blood  bounded to hemoglobin  ○   ○ Hb binds to O acc2rding to PO (partia2 pressure)  ■ ^PO = ^Hb anity for oxygen (stick together)  2   ○ Opposite to Hb, myoglobin has a higher anity to oxygen in a lower  PO 2o facilitate O tr2nsport from blood to muscles  ○ Drop in pH causes a right shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve  ■ Decreased anity of O at tis2ues with lower PO   2 ● Allows oxygen to be released easier in tissues in need  ○ Increased body temperature causes a right shift of the oxyhemoglobin  dissociation curve  ■ Easier o load of O   2 ● CO Tr2nsport in Blood  ○ Hb plays critical role in CO transport as well  2 ○ ~5% of CO dis2olve in blood, freely oating   ○ ~25% of CO bin2 to Hb  ○ ~70% of CO go i2to RBC and form bicarbonate   ○   ● Gas diusion  ○ Gases move down concentration gradients   ○ Optimal gas exchange achieved via:  ■ Structure of alveoli  ■ High capacity to transport gases in blood  ■ Maintenance of concentration gradient with P AO2of 105mm Hg  and P ACO2of 40mm Hg   ● Primary goal of ventilation regulation  ■ Adequate capillary transit time  ● Capillary transit time becomes a limit when exercise  intensity is too high (CO too high), Q to lungs is too fast, no  time for gas exchange to occur   ○ Pulmonary ventilation increases exponentially as exercise intensity  increases  ■ Maintenance of PAO   2 ■ Maintenance of PaO   2 ○ Fick’s Law of Diusion  ■   ● Control of Ventilation   ○ Large increase/inuence: Neural → Motor Cortex  ○ Fine tune: Humoral → Peripheral chemoreceptors sensing changes of  PO2, PCO2, pH  ○ Central input to respiratory center from:  ■ Motor cortex  ■ Hypothalamus   ■ Cerebellum   ■ Reticular formation  ■ Central chemoreceptors   ○ Peripheral input to respiratory center from:  ■ Peripheral chemoreceptors → aortic arch and carotid bodies;  sensing changes of PO2, PCO2, pH  ■ Muscle aerents → active limb movement (muscle contraction)  ■ Mechanoreceptors in lungs → prevent over-ination -- inhibit  inspiration   ■ Mechanoreceptors in muscles → active and passive limb  movement -- stimulate inspiration   ● During active movements, there is a additive eect of  muscle aerents + mechanoreceptors in muscles, thus a  much higher V   E ○ Inspiration is largely regulated by the body (both central and peripheral  input) because it is always active (voluntary)            ________________________________________________________________________________  Lecture 10 Acid-Base Balance  + ● As well as H , CO als2 decreases pH   ● Sources of H :  + + ○ ATP Hydrolysis (ATP → ADP + H )  + + ○ Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (NAD + P → NADH + H )   ○ Buering of CO (CO 2 H O 2 H +2HCO )  + 2- ● Sources of CO : 2 ○ TCA cycle  ● pH and Performance  ○ A signicant drop in muscle pH inhibits glycolytic rate and pyruvate  oxidation  ■ Because key enzymes are inhibited by low pH  ■ Reduced high intensity exercise performance  ○ Hydrogen ions compete with calcium for binding sites on troponin  ■ Signicant drop in muscle pH interferes with  excitation-contraction coupling, thereby decreasing power  production  ● Muscle pH declines more dramatically than blood pH with increasing exercise  intensity  ○ Muscle is site of majority of H production and has lower buering  capacity than blood  ● Blood relies upon multiple systems to buer:  ○ 1st line of defense: (only pick o small numbers of H , sucient during  rest/low intensity exercise)  ■ Intramuscular proteins, phosphates, and bicarbonate  ■ Blood proteins and hemoglobin  ○ 2nd line of defence: (rapid glycolysis)  ■ Blood bicarbonate + ventilatory compensation → primary  buering system  ● Ventilatory Compensation   ○ Peripheral chemoreceptors senses the increase in PCO in the 2lood  produced by buering H   + ■ ^ventilation   ○ Metabolic production of CO (mit2chondria) increases linearly with the  increase in intensity  ○ When the intensity gets high enough (achieve rapid glycolysis rate), the  addition of non metabolic CO production causes the rate of ventilation  2 to increase exponentially (from linearly)   ○ Ventilation threshold is absolute because beyond that threshold body  pH would drop dramastically, which causes all sorts of dysfunction   ■ However, vent. threshold can change with intense exercise  training (e.g. sprint, HIIT) 


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