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PSY 214 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Catie Notetaker

PSY 214 Chapter 1 Notes PSY214

Catie Notetaker


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About this Document

First chapter of the text
Child Psychology
Tayor Walrath
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Child Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catie Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY214 at Sauk Valley Community College taught by Tayor Walrath in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Sauk Valley Community College.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
• An introduction to child development • Chapter One • Child Development • The Scope of the Field Child development includes: • Approaches to Child Development • Physical Development Physical development examines: • Cognitive Development Cognitive development examines: • Personality and Social Development • Personality development includes the stability and change of enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another. • Social development examines how social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life. • Age Ranges and Individual Differences • Researchers divide childhood and adolescence into broad ranges: • Cohort Influences on Development • Cohort • Cohort effects • Age-graded influences Who are the members of your cohort? • Sociocultural-graded Influences • Development is also affected by sociocultural-graded influences, which include: • Non-normative Life Events • Non-normative life events are specific, atypical events that occur in a particular person’s life at a time when such events do not happen to most people. Can you think of an example of a non-normative life event? • Children of the Past Early Views of Children: Locke • tabula rasa or “blank slate” • children entirely shaped by their experiences as they grew up Rousseau • noble savages • children born with innate sense of right and wrong and morality. • Baby Biographies Baby Biographies • First time children methodically studied • Observers traced growth of single child • Contributions of Women • Women made significant contributions to child development despite prejudice. • Hollingworth: one of first psychologists to focus on child development • Major Issues in Child Development • Continuous Change vs. Discontinuous Change • In continuous change, development is gradual. • Continuous Change vs. Discontinuous Change • Discontinuous change occurs in distinct steps or stages. • Distinguishing Sensitive vs. Critical Periods • Distinguishing Sensitive vs. Critical Periods • Collectivistic Orientation Collectivistic Orientation • Interdependence among members of society • Asian societies • Individualistic Orientation Individualistic Orientation • Concentration on uniqueness of the individual • Western societies • Life Span Approaches Versus a Focus on Particular Periods • Early developmentalists tended to focus on the periods of infancy and adolescence, largely to the exclusion of other parts of childhood. How has this view changed? What influenced this shift in thinking? • Influence of Nature and Nurture on Development • Nature: traits, abilities, and capabilities inherited from one’s parents • Influence of Nature and Nurture on Development • Nurture: environmental influences that shape behavior • Children and Violence Explaining the roots of violence • Early behavioral and physical problemsà later difficulties in controlling aggression • Exposure to violence in the media and in video games àaggression. • Children and Violence • How can we explain the level of violence? • How do people learn to be violent? • How can we control and remedy aggression? • How can we discourage violence from occurring in the first place? • The Future of Child Development • Looking back • How have the views of childhood changed historically? How are children treated differently today than in earlier times? • Looking back • What are major societal influences that determine development? Give an example of how cultural differences affect childhood. • Looking back • What is the future of child development likely to hold? How is the study of genetics and genetic behavior likely to impact or change the field of child development? • Be an informed consumer • Consider the source • Evaluate Credentials • Understand the difference between subjective vs. scientific evidence • Keep cultural context in mind • Don’t assume that popular opinions are correct


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