Psychology, Week 7 Notes
Psychology, Week 7 Notes PSYC 2010 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Daniels on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction into Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Psychology | Week 7 Monday, September 26, 2016 Cognitive processing and Operant conditioning In fixed-interval schedule, an animal expects that repeating the response would soon produce a reward Rats in mazes develop a cognitive map (mental representation) even with no rewards by demonstrating latent learning (learning became apparent only when there was some incentive to demonstrate it). Even when we may not show that we’ve learned something, it can still be in there Learning by Observation Observational Learning Modeling: Albert Bandura and Bobo Doll Study o When you see someone doing violent actions, you tend to imitate them o Prosocial effects: most effective when actions and words are consistent o Antisocial effects: movies, TV, video games, aggression in home, etc. Infants imitate as young as 8 months Intelligence Development of Cognitive Psychology Humans vs. computers Similarities/differences Input processing output Differences o Emotions o Humans may process things without realizing o Computers can’t learn o Human mind able to develop new learning goals, rules, relationships, concepts, and patterns o Human mind is aware of itself o Human mind has rich consciousness. Artificial intelligence o Up to 1950’s, behaviorism and psychoanalytic (Freud) primary schools of thought. o By late 1950’s, into hey day in 1980’s, cognitive psychology rising o Cognitive psychology: explains observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed. What is Intelligence? o Intelligence (in all cultures): the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. o In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts”. This is because the above examples (learning from experience, ex.) are difficult to measure. Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Intelligence: ability or abilities? o Have you ever thought that since people’s mental abilities are so diverse, it may not be justifiable to label those abilities with only one word, intelligence? General Intelligence o The idea that general intelligence exists comes from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945) who helped develop the factor analysis approach in statistics. Discovered that there are certain pieces that go together that form intelligence 2 Ex. Athleticism would be overarching umbrella. Under that would be balance, good eye-hand coordination, strength, endurance, stamina o Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. Ex. Vocabulary exams-paragraph comprehension exams – verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor. Types of Intelligence: Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind Verbal: think in words and use language to express meaning Mathematical Spatial: think three-dimensionally Bodily-kinesthetic: manipulate objects and be physically adept Musical: sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone Interpersonal: understand and interact affectively with others Intrapersonal: understand oneself Naturalist: observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human-made systems Sternberg’s Triarchich Theory Analytical Intelligence: analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast Creative Intelligence: create, design, invent, originate, and imagine Practical Intelligence: use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice, “street smarts” Intelligence and Creativity 3 Creativity: the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. It correlates somewhat with intelligence. 1. Expertise: a well-developed knowledge base 2. Imaginative Thinking: the ability to see things in novel ways 3. Venturesome Personality: a personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack. 4. Intrinsic motivation: a motivation to be creative from within. 5. Creative environment: a creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, and use emotions. The test of emotional intelligence measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components. Emotional Intelligence: components o Perceive emotion: recognize emotions in faces, music and stories o Understand emotion: predict emotions, how they change and blend o Manage emotion: express emotions in different situation o Use emotion: utilize emotions to adapt or be creative Emotional Intelligence: criticism o Gardner and others criticize the idea of emotional intelligence and question whether we stretch this idea of intelligence too far when we apply it to our emotions. Assessing Intelligence 4 Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores. Alfred Binet o Binet and colleague Théodore Simon developed intelligence questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system (1904). Unintended consequences: those who scored lower on intelligence tests were placed on front lines. Lewis Terman o In the US, Terman adapted Binet’s test for American school children and named the test the Stanford- Binet Test (1916). The following is the formula of Intelligence Quotient (IQ), introduced by William Stern: IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 EXTRA CREDIT Come up with a classical conditioning (or some other conditioning) example, and label all of the parts of it. Type it up, turn it in. Friday, September 30, 2016 David Wechsler o Developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS – 1939) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC – 1955), an intelligence test for school-aged children and the WIPSI (1967) for preschool-aged children. o Gives us a numerical account, something we can compare, to other people their age Principles of Test Construction 5 For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: o Standardization Involves administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison. Establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve. Extremes of Intelligence: the intellectually disabled (IQ 70) and high intelligence (IQ 130). These two groups are significantly different. o Reliability A test is reliable when it yields consistent results Split-half reliability: diving the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. Test-retest reliability: using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency Inter-rater reliability: if two different people administer tests, results will still be similar. o Validity Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict. Content validity: a measure represents all aspects of a given construct. If you’re measuring depression, you wouldn’t just ask “are you sad?” A lot of people can be sad. Predictive Validity: trying to predict how well someone is going to do at a certain thing. Ex. ACT, SAT 6 Discriminant Validity: obtain when we measure to things that are thought to be dissimilar and our measure can discriminate between them. In a depression test, you have to discriminate between depression, anxiety, ADHD, substance abuse, and autism. You want to be able to measure what you say you’re measuring. Flynn Effect o In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have been rising steadily by an average of 27 points. This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect. Information is more readily available School starts at a younger age People are working harder for education Heath; better access to healthcare, food Biases in Intelligence Testing o Race o Socio-economic status o Religion o Education of parents o Urban vs. Rural o Primary Language o Age o How easy/hard to form culturally unbiased assessment of intelligence Longitudinal design: follow same group of individuals (5, 15, 25 years) Cross-sectional design: follow different groups at the age levels Aging and Intelligence o Phase 1: cross-sectional evidence Intelligence declined Mental decline part of aging process o Phase 2: Longitudinal Evidence Followed same cohort 7 Until late in life, intelligence is stable o Phase 3 Steeper intelligence decline after 85 Intelligence not a single trait Older people have slower neural processing o Crystalized intelligence: accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocab and analogies tests Tend to keep as we age o Fluid Intelligence: the ability to reason speedily and abstractly Tends to decrease as we age 8
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