PSYC 339 WEEK 6
PSYC 339 WEEK 6 PSYC 339
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Lemus on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 339 at University of Southern California taught by Justin Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Origins of the Mind in PSYC at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Notes 9/27: No Notes (Midterm 1) Notes 9/29: Numbers Part 1 ● After covering the first 3 elements we are now on the fourth topic! Here’s a quick review of the previous parts: ○ Perception: Main question: How do we see the world? We found that the skills needed for visual perception are found early on in humans, while other animals have it innately. Prism studies show that vision is not modifiable in adults. ○ Navigation. Main question: How do we use our surroundings and internal cues to orientate ourselves. We discovered that we have three different systems: Path integration (found across different animals), Snapshot (can be invariant, or view dependent) and reorientation (3 different signature: domain specific, task specific, Encapsulation) ○ Object representation: Main question: how do we discern objects. We discovered that we have two system: tracking objects and object recognition. Now onto numbers! Obviously numbers are pretty important. They fill every aspect of our lives. The questions we have are: how do we learn to deal with numbers. There are some obstacles we have to face when trying to figure out the origins of number representation: This is the first time that we are dealing with something that is indisputably conceptual/doesn’t exist in the world. Numbers are also completely abstract and can span across all our senses (5 visual things, 4 sounds heard, 2 scents smelled, etc). Numbers also don’t appear in every country, so it has to do with culture. And are numbers shared with other animals? ● Nativist: would argue that the ability to use numbers is sown into our brain ● Empiricist: Number representation is learned through associations and detection How do animals compared to humans when it comes to representation of numbers. Monkeys go to the larger piles of ants, dolphins have early evidence of super coalitions of alliances. Different parts of the brain are used to tell different types: Left inferior frontal is for exact numbers, Bilateral parietal for approximate numbers. We’ll start by looking for the signatures to see how they work in human adults? We have four different systems, 3 of them are carried by all animals while one is uniquely human. Signature 1: Number Representation (The number sense or ratio signature): This trait gives the ability to compute the approximate number of something, this trait is ancient, nonverbal, and can be seen in rats, monkeys, and babies and even adults in tribes where numbers don’t exist. We can usually tell larger ratios apart. Signature 2: Abstract representation. We can discern different size sets even if there is a change of inputs (# of sounds vs # of dots). We are just as good at doing this as we are with two visual tests Signature 3: We can use arithmetic rules like addition and subtraction to discern approximate representation. (Is this and this more than this) But all these tests were tried on adults, let's test babies and animals to see if these systems are actually core knowledges. First, babies! ● Number representation: Babies look at new number of objects after being habituated to another number of objects. Can tell when the number ratio is 1:2 but not 2:3 ○ This critical ratio declines as we get older for a number of reasons. We become more experienced with counting and associations and non specific experience ● Abstract Representation: Lipton’s task of discerning sound ratios (Like above, but with sound) again babies can tell 1:2 ratios but not 2:3 ratios at 6 months and 2:3 ratios but not 4:5 ratios at 9 months. ○ Also gets grows with association, learning, and nonspecific experience ● Computation: can babies discern between impossible and possible additions? Yes, yes they can! ● So in summary, before babies are even taught to count or use arithmetics they know impossible outcomes and can discern between large number representation. They do have a ratio limit, but it grows, and it has the same ratio between abstract representation. What about non human animals? Large number representation: Baboons: without training or prior experience, have a spontaneous sense of quantity. Rats: as they required number of times to hit a level to get a treat becomes larger, the rat’s precision becomes less correct. Tamarin monkey: speaker with eight sounds, once the monkeys get bored. Then show different sounds. Can tell 4vs8 and 4vs6. Succeed with a 2:3 ration but not a 4:5. Same as a 9 months babies. Number representation even without training. Abstract capacity: Rats hit the level depending on the number of flashes. Then they start playing sounds instead of light flashes. Show the same ratio results as the large number presentation tests from before. Even without training they could transfer the trait. Addition and subtraction: Island of Cayo Santiago where we show rhesus monkeys fruit. If you add fruit and it’s a possible outcome they don’t care. If it’s impossible they look longer Why might we see numbers across so many different species? Adaptation effect for things like motion color shape and even number. Seeing a whole bunch of dots tires out the neurons that track it. Now we’ll look at the trait that is specifically human!
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