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Week 3

by: Kincaid Lathram
Kincaid Lathram

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Notes from class
Professor Michael Marshall
Class Notes
Egyptian, crisis, institutionalization
25 ?





Popular in History of Africa and the Middle East

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kincaid Lathram on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 336 at Miami University taught by Professor Michael Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see POLITICS OF MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA in History of Africa and the Middle East at Miami University.

Similar to POL 336 at MU

Popular in History of Africa and the Middle East


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Legitimacy Crisis: Egypt I  Anwar Sadat  Yom Kippur War 1974 o Egypt invested much into the war o Egypt was the Arab Bulwark and Soviet pawn against Israel o In ’77 Sadat signed a negotiated settlement with Israel  Egypt would regain the Sanai  Percentage of Egyptian Oil would be traded with Israel  Non-Aggression Pact  Economic Downturn 1978-1981 o Egypt used Mandatory Conscription during the 70s o Suez Crisis 1978 o Sadat’s alliance with the Soviet Union o Egypt’s small middle class began rotesting; protesting was repressed Legitimacy Crisis: Egypt II  President Hosni Mubarak (1981-2011) o Military demands/moneyed interest on Mubarak  End to soviet military alliance  Return to Arab Nationalism  Nationalism of Suez and Oil Markets o Alliance with NATO and the United States  Egypt became lead negotiator in Arab-Israeli Affairs  Broke off official ties with Hamas and al-Aqsa Martyrs  US provides military/logistical support  US has an interest in keeping Mubarak in poer, but also has an interest in democratization  Multiparty Elections start in 2005 o Socioeconomic changes  Tourism, Oil, and Trade provide steady growth  Youth bulge  Increased literacy amongst youth 90%  Youths are westernized and tech-savvy  Global Recession 2009  Stable Middle Class becomes largely unemployed  Quickly Egypt’s massive cost of government starts to fold on itself  New problems met with old solutions o Middles class protests met with violent suppression o In some cities protesters ran over with tank and military coup in February of 2011 Legitimacy Crisis: Egypt III  President Mohammed Morsi (2012-2013) o First truly democratically elected president o Freedom of Justice Party wins in landslide  Ideology  Muslim Brotherhood  Social Welfare and Redistributive wealth  Social Conservatism: Womens rights, civil- political rights, property rights  Anti-western Reliance  Arab-Nationalism  Government Restructuring and Proportional Government  Anti-corruption Arab World: Class Structure Democratizing Autocracies Lebanon Qatar Tunisia UAE Algeria Morocco Jordan Saudi Arabia Egypt Literacy in Arab States - High Democratizing Autocracies Lebanon Bahrain Tunisia Qatar Palestine Yemen Morocco Syria Saudi Arabia Egypt Urban Population in Arab States Democratizing Autocracies Lebanon 5 Kuwait 1 Qatar 2 UAE 3 Bahrain 4 Jordan 6 Saudi Arabia 7 Libya 8 Oman 9 Rebuttal: Institutionalization  Simon Beer o Bureaucratization  Economic Development  Social Complexities  Division of Labour  Specialization  Creation of Agencies to deal with new problems  Governments are not reactionary, they adapt to environment  Bureaus find solutions to economic changes  Bureaucratization occurs in Autocratic/Democratic Regimes alike  Sam Hunington (1965, 68, 70) o Institutionalization  Process by which organization/procedures become institutions  Social norms become socioeconomic/sociopolitical institutions  Even economic factors become institutionalized over time  Politics can develop, but they can also Decay  Social mobilization does not always lead to democratization  There are many instance where mobilization/ modernization lead to autocratic rule o In most cases, Autocracies are the ones able to withstand the pressures of modernization  Adaptability o Ability to survive political and economic shocks o Measurement:  Chronological Age: Lifespan of the current organization  Generational Age: # of leadership transitions  Functional Age: # of ties the function of a regime is reformed  Complexity o Stability of Regime Type to political shocks o Measurement:  Division of Labour  Representatives in Government have different jobs; ministerial portfolios  Party cadres have different specializations: Candidates, Recruiters, etc  Division of Structures/ Institutional Redundancies  Branches of government  Checks and balances  Organization of survival Dimensions of Institutionalization  Autonomy o Governing institutions are not dependent upon social order o Governing officials cannot be vetoed by class structure o Measurement:  Sovereignty – Monopoly on legitimate use of force  State Fragility index  Extortion  Size of the illicit economy  Foreign Influence; Imposition  Coherence o Unity of Purpose or Ideology o Measurement:  Public Opinion  Nationalism  Political Ideology  Realignment 


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