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PKG Lecture 9 Notes

by: Samantha Shea

PKG Lecture 9 Notes PKG 101

Samantha Shea

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These notes cover what should be highlighted in class on Tuesday, October 4th.
Principles of Packaging
p. koning
Class Notes
Packaging, Lecture Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Paper  and  Paperboard Tuesday,  October  4,  210:25  AM Early  Papermaking • Single  sheet  manufacturing ○ Rags  and  cloth Process  Development • Two  new  continuous  processes  developed  for  faster  production ○ Fourdrinier  process Cylinder  Process ○ U.S  Paper  Today • Paper  mostly  made  from  wood • Rags  are  added  to  make  high  quality  stationary  and  other  specialty  papers. 1.  Fourdrinier  Machine 2.  Cylinder  Machine 3.  Twin-­‐Wire  Machines The  Nature  of  Paper • Paper  is  composed  of  matted  cellulose  fibers • Cellulose  fiber  quality  is  the  prime  determinant  of  properties North  American  Fiber  Sources • Hardwoods ○ Short  fibers ○ Smooth,  good  formation ○ Even,  good  printing  but  poor  physical  strength • Softwoods ○ Long  fibers ○ Good  tensile,  puncture,  tear,  and  fold  strength ○ But  poor  formation  &  printing Other  Papermaking  Fiber  Sources • Recycled  paper  and  packaging • Ranges  from  low  quality  newsprint  to  high  quality  corrugated  board Wood  Consists  of… • 50%  cellulose  (the  desired  product) • Lignin  (undesired) • Carbohydrates  (undesired) Fiber  Extraction • There  are  3  main  types  of  pulping  processes • 50%  cellulose  (the  desired  product) • Lignin  (undesired) • Carbohydrates  (undesired) Fiber  Extraction • There  are  3  main  types  of  pulping  processes ○ Mechanical   ○ semi-­‐chemical ○ Chemical Fiber  Extraction  (pulping) • Semi-­‐chemical Major  pulping  process  for  corrugating  medium,  the  wavy  fluted  layer  in   ○ corrugated  board. • Chemical  extraction  with  sulfate  (kraft  process) ○ Costly ○ Low  fiber  degradation ○ Dissolves  away  lignin ○ Strongest  wood  pulp,  strongest  paper  products   ○ Environmentally  stable • The  kraft  process  is  by  far  the  most  widely  used  process  for  making  pulp  for   packaging  paper  and  paperboard. Defintition • Paper ○ A  matted  or  felted  sheet  usually  composed  of  plant  fiber. ○ Paper  caliper  is  0.012"  or  less • Paperboard ○ Heavier  paper  stock ○ Paperboard  caliper  is  more  than  0.012" Paper  and  Paperboard  terms • Gauge/caliper -­‐ thickness  of  the  sheet  expressed  in  thousands  of  inch,  or  points   (0.001"  =  1pt) ○ Paper  is  0.012"  or  less  (up  to  and  including  12  pts) Paperboard  is  >  0.012"  (12ps  or  greater) ○ • Basis  weight-­‐ weight  of  known  area • Brightness-­‐total  reflectance  of  the  white  light • Structure-­‐composition  of  sheet • Machine  direction-­‐ long  direction  of  web Brightness • A  measure  of  the  total  reflectance  of  white  light • Vales  expressed  on  a  scale  of  1  to  100   • The  value  is  not  a  percentage • Not  to  be  confused  with  'whiteness',  a  color  description • Most  papers  range  from  78  and  84  bright Types  of  Paper • Vales  expressed  on  a  scale  of  1  to  100   • The  value  is  not  a  percentage • Not  to  be  confused  with  'whiteness',  a  color  description • Most  papers  range  from  78  and  84  bright Types  of  Paper • Kraft  Paper ○ Noted  for  its  strength ○ Bleached  and  unbleached  (strongest) ○ Grocery  bags,  envelopes,  gummed  sealing  tape,  and  multiwall  bags • Glassine  Paper  (waxed) • Tissue  Paper • Vegetable  parchment • Cellophane • Containerboards  (linerboard  and  medium) ○ Linerboard  (facings) ○ Medium  (fluting) Types  of  Paperboard • Chipboard-­‐low  quality  paperboard,  100%  recycled  fiber • Bending  chipboard-­‐slightly  better  grade,  still  primarily  recycled  fiber • Liner  chipboard-­‐white  face-­‐liner  applied • Single  white-­‐lined  (SWL) • Clay-­‐Coated  Newsback  (CCNB) • Double  White-­‐Lined  (DWL) • Solid  Bleached  Sulfate  (SBS) -­‐100%  bleached  Kraft  paperboard.  Strong,   premium,  white  throughout.  Consistent  manufacturing  performance. • Solid  Unbleached  Sulfate  (SUS) -­‐unbleached  Kraft  paperboard,  provides   maximum  strength • Food  Board Common  Paperboards • Clay  Coated  Newsback-­‐(CCNB)  SWL  with  a  gray  newsback  liner • Solid  Unbleached  sulfate-­‐(SUS)  100%  chemical  pulp • Solid  Bleached  sulfate-­‐(SBS)  100%  bleached  chemical  pulp 1.  The  Fourdrinier  Machine Paper(board)  Manufacturing • "Wet  End" ○ Headbox ○ Water  removal  section • "Dry  End" ○ Dryer  section ○ Calendering  Stack ○ Wind-­‐Up Furnish • Furnish  for  making  paper-­‐mixture  of  water,  pulp  and  additives  (about  98%   water)  is  fed  into  the  Headbox ○ Dryer  section ○ Calendering  Stack ○ Wind-­‐Up Furnish • Furnish  for  making  paper-­‐mixture  of  water,  pulp  and  additives  (about  98%   water)  is  fed  into  the  Headbox Drier  Section Calendar  Stack Water  Removal • Gravity • Suction • Pressing • Drying  Rolls • Paper  dries  to  5 -­‐10%  moisture  content The  number  of  rollers,  the  pressure,  and  optional  heating  of  the  calendar  rolls  all   affect  the  characteristics  of  the  paper. …continuous  length  of  paper  on  a  roll  is  also  called  a  "Web" 2.  The  Cylinder  Machine The  Cylinder  Machine • No  Headbox • Screen  Covered  Cylinders  pick  up  pulp  from  vats • Each  vat  can  contain  a  different  types  of  pulp • Each  cylinder  adds  another  layer • Makes  heavy  grades  (Paperboard  >  12  points) 3.  Twin-­‐Wire  Machines Cylinder  and  Fourdrinier • Generally,  papers  are  made  on  Fourdrinie-­iire  formers,  whereas   heavier  paperboard  products  are  made  on  Cylinder  machines • Cylinder  board  is  always  multi-­‐ply  (has  multiple  layers),  while  Fourdrinier  paper   is  most  often eply  (only  one  layer). Paper  Directionality • Paper  is  an  Anisotropic material  (not  isotropic),  which  means  their  properties  do depend  on  direction. Molded  Pulp(Fibre)  Containers  &  Forms • Three  dimensional  structures • Screen  mesh  covered  mold • Furnish  is  poured  or  dipped • Vacuum  assist • Multiple  cycles  to  achieve  needed  caliper • Drying  oven • Low  grade  or  recycled  stock • Advanced,  precision,  slower  method  of  pressing  between  molds ○ Higher  grade  pulp • Vacuum  assist • Multiple  cycles  to  achieve  needed  caliper • Drying  oven • Low  grade  or  recycled  stock • Advanced,  precision,  slower  method  of  pressing  between  molds ○ Higher  grade  pulp


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