Stereotypes: What Are They?
Stereotypes: What Are They? Soc 201
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Caine on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 201 at New York University taught by Blaine Robbins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Sociology at New York University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Stereotypes: What Are They? Stereotypes o Definition Beliefs and explanations about a social group, and about the extent to which the group’s probable behaviors, features, and traits can be generalized to individual members of the group Not likes and dislikes Not action caused by stereotypes Not prejudice or discrimination o Prejudice is attitude about a category or group o Discrimination is biased treatment of an individual because of stereotypes and/ or prejudices o Simply knowing a stereotype about a group, even if we reject the stereotype and like said group, is sufficient to trigger it when we encounter a member of a stereotyped group o Examples (negative) Union members are lazy White people can’t jump Janitors are boorish o Examples (positive) Mothers are nurturing Asians are good at math Protestants are hard working Positive stereotypes can still be harmful to stereotyped group o Although stereotypes are cognitively efficient, they have (at least) two factual problems Often based on culturally received information, which is usually false Even if based in personal experience, they can be over-applied o In spite of their “handiness” and because of their factual problems, they have pervasive effects in everyday life affecting: Preferences Attitudes Behavior Stereotypes and Behaviors o Once a stereotype gets triggered, it can guide the way we think and act o Devine (1989, experiment two) Pre-tested participants were divided into high prejudice and low prejudice groups Participants (all white) were then given subliminal (something you can perceive consciously) priming with stereotype-relevant words Group one: 80 stereotypical “black” words and 20 neutral Group two: 80 neutral and 20 stereotypical o Never shown the word “hostile” Participants then given information on a person named Donald (race unknown) Given info such as “Donald refuses to pay rent until his sewage is fixed”, “Donald goes to the grocery store and demands his money back” Results Group one rated Donald more hostile than group two No significance between low and high prejudice Results don’t suggest that people are doomed to use stereotypes once triggered; they simply suggest that stereotypes are inevitably triggered o Motivation (Motivated Stereotyping) When stereotypes make you feel better about yourself or the world, you’ll be more likely to apply them If someone of a stereotyped group is better at something than you, you are more inclined to blame it on the stereotype than on your lack of ability o Sinclair and Kunda (2000) Hypothesis: people are more likely to apply negative stereotypes to someone if that someone criticized them Looked at instructor evaluation Conducted after grades were given o Students were asked for instructor name, evaluation of instructor, grade received, fairness of grade Results Male and female professors graded the same o Evaluations of female professors more dependent on grade then male If student was given a good grade by a professor, then male and female instructors were both given good evaluations If student was given a bad grade, they evaluated the female instructors twice as harshly as the male instructors Getting a negative grade activated student’s negative stereotypes of women’s competance
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