test 101, week 1 notes
test 101, week 1 notes test 101
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Webster on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to test 101 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Emily Webster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Where do mind and behavior fit within natural systems? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) o “Kind of invented Western Philosophy, so you’re gonna be hearing about him a lot” o Animals are all reflex, humans are not Empiricists o Experience is key; no innate ideas o Materialism Everything happens within the world of “stuff” and can be explained by finding out how that stuff works. o Associations: causal chain and trains of thought 8/31/15 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- Sona research thing – FIND OUT WHAT THIS IS. o You can miss two before they kick you out Psychology is distinguished from sociology because of Methodology o It’s a form of science, where checking your answers is important It’s really hard to do a project that is reproducible “If you want to be certain, don’t be a scientist” o Study: Valderone X Study to see if pain medicine worked Shocked subjects, asked them to rate the pain o Ehhh that’s sketchy to me – people would rate using different mental measurements Given Valderone X and one of two pamphlets o One says it’s American, expensive, and $15 a tablet o The other says it’s inexpensive, manufactured abroad, and 15c a shock Shocked again and asked how much it hurt o People with the “more expensive” tablet reported less pain o Self-fulfilling prohecyyyyyy Pill was actually nothing but cornstarch This is known as the PLACEBO EFFECT Placebo effect o You expect something to happen, so you convince yourself it did o Opposite: Nocebo effect – convince yourself it won’t help so it doesn’t Clever Hans, Mr von Osten and Oskar Pfungst o “Clever Hans” was a horse who could supposedly answer questions correctly Turns out he was just very attuned to his owner’s unconscious signals Van Osten was relaxing when Hans got to the right answer, and Hans watched for him to relax so he could get his treat! Similar to Botox Experiments – Humans are SO sensitive to facial expressions Research Design: Correlational Studies o Observe and measure relationships between two variables o Cannot show cause and effect Epidemiologists can look at lots of data and see if they’re important in ways other than the obvious 9/2/15 _____________________________________________________________________________ Hypothesis – A suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon or prediction of a possible causal correlation among multiple phenomena Theories – Well-substantiated, unifying explanation for a set of verified, proven hypotheses Research Design: Experiments o One of the most remarkable inventions of all time o “We make progress by replacing theories that are incorrect with theories that are more subtly incorrect.” o Quasi-Experimental versus true experimental designs Use as many elements of the preferred actual experiment as possible You can also find things out statistically 9/9/2015 ___________________________________________________________________________ Test and essay due soon – check due dates for those Sign up for SONA – like really, do it Who’s who? o Gregor Mendel Monk, used pea plants to discover the science of genes and that parents give their children pieces of their genes; also that inbreeding has severe consequences James Watson and Francis Crick discovered, with the help of Rosalind Franklin and her X-ray micrograph data collection, the actual science and structure of DNA and WHY gene traits are so important Double helix Nucleic acid, etc 9/14/15_____________________________________________________________________________ Essay due Friday; test due Friday HE HAS A BRAIN 9/16/15 _____________________________________________________________________________ Hypothalamus o Involved in the F’s – your motivation for doing things Feeding: Can make you feel hungry or not Fear: Helps you be afraid and generate your fear-related actions Fighting: Helps motivate fight/flight etc for defense Sexual behavior (Considered the fourth F lol) Fluids: Drinking, etc Pituitary gland o Controls tons of hormones o Controls your growth Hippocampus o Memory o If you lose your hippocampus, you lose your memory Often seen in Alzheimers/Dementia Amygdala o Creates emotional tone you’re feeling Extreme elation; terror; etc If amygdala is taken away, feeling is gone – especially, there is NO fear anymore Tend to do more risky things; no suspicion Usually viral infections etc cause this Example: rats with amygdalas removed aren’t scared of snakes – in fact, they’ll bite them back! Cerebral Cortex o “Needs to be wrinkled so the surface area can fit into the skull. Our cortexes are the size of dishtowels; if they were flat, we’d be running around looking like hammerhead sharks. PLUS, your mom would be like ‘Really? Make this a reasonable size!’” o 20% of calories we use, only 3 lbs o Motor Areas, Sensory areas, and association areas Motor is just for movement – rats have a lot of that Sensory is for sensing – Cats have a lot of that Association is space just for processing – We have SO. MUCH. Language, learning, reasoning, connecting. Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex o Cerebrum Two hemispheres Frontal Lobe o Good for making plans, good ideas, wise decisions Temporal Lobe o Processes space, sound, etc Parietal Lobe o Lose track of where things are Occipital Lobe o Strokes on left side of the brain really influence language o Phineas Gage Gets a pole blown into his head, under his cheekbone, behind his eye, and out his head on the other side Stayed conscious Wound was cleaned (Doctor could reach entirely through his head…probably not the best way to clean out a wound though) Mr. Gage lived completely to tell the tale, and was still very intelligent – but after the accident, he became a completely different person. o Much more impatient o Harvard still has the brain The cerebral cortex of the brain is the outer, wrinkly layer of the brain, and usually about one fifth to half an inch thick. Divided into two hemispheres, the cerebral cortex is in charge of some of the most important important functions of the brain, each function belonging to its own lobe in the cortex. If you have ever made a very good decision, your frontal lobe deserves the congratulations, as it is in charge of anything that requires wisdom or making plans. It's also in charge of movement, the parts of speech, and our emotions. Right behind the frontal lobe is the parietal lobe, which helps us process any movement, stimulus, and spatial orientation where things are in relation to us. The parietal lobe helps with simple tasks, but without it, we would have an exceedingly difficult time remaining stable and balanced, catching and receiving balls, and doing many other things that seem mundane, but are necessary to daily life. At the back of the brain is the occipital lobe, and, as its name suggests, this lobe of the cortex is involved with sight and visual processing. Finally, located near the temples are the aptly named temporal lobes, which are in charge also of spatial recognition, as well as processing sound, speech, and memory. The entire cortex is covered in small ridges: in fact, it takes on the appearance of a wrinkled washcloth, but though they may be unattractive, they have an incredible purpose: they give the brain enough surface area that it can do its job, while still remaining small enough that our skull can protect it, and that our heads are not so large they offbalance our bodies. Even our very births wouldn't be possible if not for the way our brain bunches. It may not look like much, but with its lobes performing different functions, all squished into one tiny powerhouse, our cerebral cortexes play an invaluably important part in our mental function. As a neurologist, I would be more than happy to help my friend, should she send me a perplexing email about both troubled speech and shut off motor functions. However, this is indeed a rather perplexing case, as, with the nature of the problems at hand, there is almost certainly more than one place of damage in the brain. Because speech and language both reside in the left hemisphere of the brain, it is likely that my friend would have sustained damage on her left side, as she cannot speak. The fact that she said she couldn't speak normally offers two immediate suggestions as to what may have sustained damage: her Wernicke's area, or her Broca's area. It would have been exceedingly helpful for her to have explained how her speech was "abnormal"; if she was able to speak and her words were simply nonsensical, it would point very clearly to damage in the Wernicke's area, since those with damage to that area are completely capable of speaking words the words simply don't make sense in their context. If she was unable to speak at all, it would point to Broca's aphasia, a condition under which victims are unable to speak or process language at all. Either of those places are likely to be involved in her problem it all depends on how she defines "abnormal" speech. Though the left side of the brain must be damaged due to my friend's malfunctioning speech, the lack of sensation in her arm is another wrench thrown into the network. Because the motor functions of the left side of the body are controlled by the right side of the brain, I would look mostly there for the damage to the hand. Because my friend is complaining of a lack of touch sensation, I would pinpoint the somatosensory portion of the right parietal lobe in the cerebral cortex. With this many possible brain injuries, however, and no explanation of how they might have occurred, I would certainly suggest my friend take my words with a grain of salt until I or another professional was able to get the full story. 9/23/2015 ________________________________________________________________________ Different theories of color processing o Yin/yang – Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision When you activate cones that are sensitive to all waves of light, the cones that are opposite of those are not being activated, and are actually being opposed. When they’re released (the flag leaves and turns white), the opposite cones fly above the base line for a bit before returning to normal. o TriChromasy (three colors) Different cone types have different things that make them react Process for general eye workage o Light goes through the eye o Hits the optic nerve Where optic nerve crosses, there’s a blind spot You can’t really see the blind spot unless you try Brain fills in the missing info for you o Scientists used experiments in completely dark rooms to find out what and where the blind spots are Flash light while the subject’s head is completely stable, ask what they see. Eventually they find a place to flash the light where the subject doesn’t realize anything is happening Eye is practically part of the brain Grows out of the brain (ew lol) during development Brain’s contact with exterior world o Information is processed according to visual field location Anything that happens on your left is processed by the right side of your brain, and vice versa Goes from eye down optic nerves to primary visual cortex (V1) BLIND SIGHT: Look up Superior Colliculus (spelling probably off) Can still detect stimulation Visual cortex doesn’t work (cortically blind) but everything else still works, so you can still sense that you can see – but you can’t. Cats are often used for experimentation because they have great vision that’s similar to ours Experiment: cats put under anesthesia, with head held steady, show cats different things to find out what neurons fire at what time o Lower fine electrodes into neurons in the visual area of the brain o If you’re completely under anesthesia, awake, or asleep, the earliest processes of sight (Optic nerve, visual cortex, etc) still reacts and absorbs the information o Agnosia Tends to be a side effect of a stroke Victims are agnostic; confessing that they don’t know Anything. They don’t know what things are, but they can still see it and draw it – they can even pick up the pencil and know what to do with it Damage to TE area in temporal lobe can cause facial agnosia – victims cannot understand faces, no matter what. They have to look for other things like clothes to identify it o They can see the faces, and describe them – they just can’t connect them with people. o Brain figures out the “what” and “where” separately, and put them together for you later. Damage in one area can cause absurd difficulties Motionblindness o Anyone who is moving cannot be seen until they stop This is dangerous because of traffic, etc Difficult to function in public People with this trait have to go out in public “blind” with visual blocking glasses and seeing eye dogs PERCEPTION IS ALWAYS INTERPRETATION o That’s why visual illusions work so well 9/28/2015_________________________________________________________________________ __ Humans are altricious o Opposite of precocious Prenatal brain development o Stars at 0 neurons, ends with 100,000,000,000 Develops at a rate of 30,000, 000 new neurons a minute During this developmental stage, fetus is really vulnerable to teratogens o Viruses o Alcohol o Drugs Infancy o Sensory development Babies’ vision develops a lot in the first year Starts out fuzzy, grainy, ends up really clear Same with depth perception o Cliff experiment o Cat experiement Vertical/horizontal stripes When cats only see one type of stripes they only develop a visual system for those stripes Vision is attuned to experience: If we haven’t experienced something, it won’t be fine tuned in our brains enough to survive it. Fine tuning must happen when you’re young, or else your mature brain might not ever pick it up o Depth o Acuity o Line angles o Etc o All depend on what we’re exposed to Same with HEARING R/L discrimination, etc Theory of Mind 10/7/15__________________________________________________________________________ Qualities of consciousness o First person experience Example: Color Even if you can explain exactly what it does scientifically; exactly how people can experience it, if you don’t, it doesn’t count. If you’ve never experienced it, you don’t miss it HARD PROBLEM is what it’s called Levels of consciousness o Circadian rhythms Throughout the night you have different levels of sleep Starts with relaxed-drowsy alpha waves Then they go to stage one sleep, with theta waves (much smaller, more chaotic) Keep going with the stages as you cycle through Last stage is REM sleep Rapid eye movement Worst phase to wake up in DREAM stage, though you can dream at other stages o Always the weirdest dreams If people are deprived of REM sleep, they’re off the next day o Alcohol can prevent REM This is part of the hangover effect If you need to “catch up on sleep”, your REM sleep comes a lot earlier than normal – usually around stage 2 SLEEP During your dreams, your brain replays things that happen for the day Dolphins and other marine mammals sleep with only one half of their brain at a time o Where they swim in their pods depends on which half of their brain is sleeping to keep an eye out for themselves Babies don’t know this trick so adults hold them up to the surface while they sleep When you sleep, the space between the cells of your brain get bigger, makes it easier for your lymphatic system to work Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus Gets information directly from your eye o Pineal gland Melatonin Lighting conditions certainly influence how you feel. o In the dark, you’re going to create more melatonin because you’re programmed to Ancestors: first sleep and second sleep First sleep at 7pm ish, then they’d get up, do something (heh), and then sleep again until sunrise If you have a screen, bright lights, etc, then your brain doesn’t actually give you the pulse of melatonin you’d need The thalamus closes down, and so the other systems get back into harmony and start oscillating (recordably synchronized) together o When you wake up, they’ll be synchronized if you got a good night’s sleep If you still feel tired and disorganized in the morning, it’s because you didn’t oscillate correctly. Sleep o During your dreams, your brain replays things that happen for the day o Dolphins and other marine mammals sleep with only one half of their brain at a time Where they swim in their pods depends on which half of their brain is sleeping to keep an eye out for themselves Babies don’t know this trick so adults hold them up to the surface while they sleep o When you sleep, the space between the cells of your brain get bigger, makes it easier for your lymphatic system to work Multitasking o It’s literally impossible EXAMPLE: Driving and talking on a phone Even with a hands free phone, talking while driving is the same as being legally intoxicated in terms of available attention o We believe that we’ll enjoy things more if we do them simultaneously – more is better, etc Actually it’s better to do one thing at a time, because not only will your performance improve, but you’ll enjoy it more as well Buddhist saying: When ________, just __________. o When walking, just walk o When chopping wood, just chop wood o You can train a stable concentration Thai forest monks LOOK UP THAI FOREST MONASTERY, NC Meditation helps tremendously Just focus on breathing Actually changes thickness of neocortex – DUDE. Jon Kabat-Zinn o Encourages attention to details of an immediate experience o Medical practice; secular version Buddhist meditation Helps with relationship issues Helps with pain relief Doesn’t take away the actual sensation, but the anguish is diminished Slows down aging at the cellular level by reducing mutation rate 10/14/2015 ______________________________________________________________________ Memory “Chain” o Sensory memory Unattended information is quickly lost o Working (short term) Memory ATTENTION Unrehearsed information is quickly lost o Long term memory ENCODING Some information may be lost over time Types of Memory o Autobiographical Memories of a specific time and place, probably unique to you Might be shared with others, but still your perspective Often similar to other biographical memories o Different class sessions in the same class, etc Broken into different types of memory o Explicit Memory Episodic Memory One’s own experiences Semantic memory Word meanings, facts, general knowledge o Implicit memory Classical conditioning effects Conditioned emotional reactions Procedural memory Motor skills, habits, tacit rules Priming Implicit activation of concepts in long term memory 10/19/2015 ________________________________________________________________________ Exam on Friday o No Learnsmart Last two don’t count Memory (Continued) o Hippocampus is vitally important Called hippocampus because it actually looks like a seahorse No, really, it does. Look it up. Represents the world in different senses Once you have one sense down, the other ones can begin to come together even if you haven’t experienced them before. o Donald Hebb Canadian Proposed that the way you get things to form connections (smell and sight, etc) is that the different systems that are driven by the different aspects of the world, when their neurons are activated in the different systems by stimulation, the cells in the brain that fire simultaneously with one another wire together Hebb’s Rule: Long Term Potentiation Date rape drugs and a few others can block long term potentiation – you can be completely awake and still have no idea that anything happened after the fact o Our brains need vestibular activity to create cognitive maps of our surroundings in our hippocampus 10/21/2015 ____________________________________________________________________________ You aren’t born with all your neurons o You’re always making new ones as well as losing old ones Consolidation and Reconsolidation o Consolidation Memories stabilize Ribot’s rule o Basically just retrograde amnesia – last things in are the first things you lose if you lose your memory Sleep effects o Especially in slow wave sleep (Waves are big and far apart) o Reconsolidation Right after a memory is recalled, it’s activated and all the cells involved in representing it are activated and undergoing changes It’s actually possible to lose a memory at this time – memories in reconsolidation are prone to destruction You can specifically erase memories by having someone recall it, then giving an inhibitor that blocks the reconsolidation process before it can be put back in the “memory banks” o This is great for trauma, but still awfully sketchy – the thing of science fiction, really In a moment of memory recall, memories can be “edited” as well, no matter how unintentionally. Science of False Memory o “Flashbulb memories” Super emotional o Your peers/surroundings/etc can actually “change” a memory, but you don’t necessarily know about it People need to be incredibly careful with psychotherapy, especially children, because it’s surprisingly easy to be coaxed into remembering something that never even happened. “False memory experiments” o Siblings o Led by Elizabeth Loftis Keeping Hippocampal Neurons Healthy and Happy o Avoid dementia and alzheimers Exercise Meditate Learning 10/26/2015 ___________________________________________________________________________ You don’t store everything with the concept of that thing o For example, a muskrat has a heart. You know that even if you’ve never seen one. Why? Muskrat is an animal, animals have hearts. You’ve stored that information about the muskrat with the concept of an animal, and not with the specific muskrat himself. Watson o Artificial intelligence system World chess system etc The Availability Heuristic o If something is available to you, you’re more likely to favor it. o More words in the English language that start with K or that have K as their third letter? Most people pick the former, because it’s easier to think about words that start with K so you assume that’s the right answer. In reality, it isn’t. Representativeness Heuristic o How do coins work? The gambler’s fallacy “I’ve had such bad luck that I am owed a good hand next time o The universe has no sense of pity. Sorry. You’re SOL dude. Anchoring effect o Where you get someone to anchor in at a particular point – a price point, perhaps. You advertise this car for 35k. But you don’t actually want them to pay that – you want, say, 25k for the car. You just price it higher because you know that if you advertised the car for 25k they wouldn’t pay more than 15k. Make sense(ish?) 10/28/2015_______________________________________________________________________ The anchoring effect o As he casually mentions that money is nothing but a mental, collective game we have all decided to play. The heck. o Economists argue that our processes are governed by decisions we make in our best interest. Egocentricism, basically – we can’t really do more than that Availability heuristics also come into play here The easier it is to think of something, the more likely one is to choose it. o Heuristics are easy to manipulate – just look at the media. Marketers never let you say the first price. Think about it – if your client offers first, you can’t bargain for what you want as easily. The influence of beliefs on perception and judgement o Case study: Two groups (one experiment, one control) were given two sets of beer each. One set had balsamic vinegar in it, one didn’t. The experimental group knew which set had the vinegar in it, and the control group didn’t. As a result, the experimental group thought that the beer with vinegar in it tasted a lot worse than the one without, just because their expectations were distorted by their presupposed belief. The control group didn’t have a problem with the vinegar – some of them even thought it tasted better!—because they didn’t know until afterwards that the two had been mixed. Language o Perks of language Allows our culture to communicate Money Organization Stories with co-belief o Religion o History o Etc Teamwork Gross, shared intelligence o Makes learning easier Learning from each other o Language and other species Most other species have a language of some sort, but none are as complex as the human language(s). Monkeys, for an example, have specific calls for each predatory animal – other monkeys, snakes, big cats, etc – and they can respond accordingly for each warning. But they can’t follow set grammar, or compose complex sentences, or tell stories. Language doesn’t affect them emotionally, creatively, the way it affects us. o Language Rules Linguists define human language as an open and symbolic communication system. Open, because nothing is set – you can go through a day hearing strings of words you’ve never heard before, and yet because you know the individual words, you can understand it and generate them yourself o This is why grammar is so important o Anything that needs to be said, can be said. It’s FASCINATING, really Symbolic, because every word you say stands for something else. Language is a Cognitive Universal thing Every human group has language Children create language o Twinspeak o Kids talk in their own language when they haven’t been given other language to speak o Children who have been raised in deaf communities do the same thing with each other And, deaf children manage to improve in sign language and perform above the second- language sign language teachers that taught them in the first place (that made more sense in my head.) Creoles o Language combinations when people from two different cultures with two different languages begin to combine those languages into one. New Orleans, for instance Speech o Structure of Language Sentence The umpires talked to the players Phrase The umpires Talked to the players Word The Umpires Talked To The Players Morpheme The Umpire s talk ed to the Play er s Phonene di ampayr z tak t tuw de play er z You constantly take things apart this way, even if you don’t realize it. This is why it’s easy to tell if something sounds “off” – you can recognize that it isn’t correctly structured. o Structure of your mouth Mouth, lips, teeth, tongue, etc are all very good for making and stopping sounds. Also making out, but that goes without saying. Your palates, vocal folds, trachea, larynx, uvula, velum, and alveolar ridge are also used in making sounds But not for making out, probably. WE HAVE THE WEIREST TONGUE ON THE PLANET We can’t drink from puddles of water, but it’s shaped completely for speech, as is everything else in our mouths. o Complexities of Speech We take speech apart in our minds, even if they’re smooshed together With sentences, for instance, we stream our words together, but because we’re familiar with said words we can usually take them apart to distinguish meaning while we listen to them. o Likethisforinstance. #learnsomethingneweveryday o Three theories of speech Conditioned Theory Skinner We learn language completely. Nativist theory Noam Chomsky You don’t actually learn the language – you speak it because you have the native cognitive equipment already embedded into your brain. Whorf’s Hypothesis Language changes the way we think and determines what we think about. Basically in the middle between the first two. We spent the last part of class listening to him imitate students as they said “dog” in different languages. o We learned today that Dr Keith can’t speak anything but English 11/9/2015 _________________________________________________________________________ Let’s talk about STRESS. o Stress is a “response elicited when a situation overwhelms a person’s perceived ability to meet the demands of a situation.” In other words, it isn’t stressful to have a ton of things to do. It’s just stressful to not think you can do it. o Stress is a Stimulus and Response deal. Stressors: Events that trigger a stress response Social Readjustment Rating Scale Well validated scale to measure stress o Involves Cortisol – the more stressed you are, the higher your cortisol indicator is. (The inverse of that is testosterone, but he didn’t mention that.) o Higher scores relate to higher stress Financial or low level legal things are rather minor, while things like death are huge. Small things on their own don’t have big consequences, but they can add up to equal as much stress as one big thing, even if you don’t realize it. Physiology of stress o You can measure stress with your spit, blood, hair, etc o Stress o Hypothalamus o Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) o Pituitary gland o Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) o Adrenal medulla and cortex o Secretion of cortisol from Adrenal Cortex Increases energy from storage Regulates immune system o Secretion of Norepinephrine from adrenal medulla Increases heartrate, respiration, and blood pressure How we adapt to stress o Homeostasis o Allostasis The process by which the body achieves stability through physiological change The concept of allostasis makes it clear that our normal state is one of actively responding to the world around us Stress and the brain o Cortisol has a profound effect on the hippocampus which is critical in memory formation Impacts the size of hippocampal dendrites, as well as neurogenesis in the hippocampus Effective coping also influences hippocampal changes o Positive Psychology of Coping Positive traits, positive emotions Optimism Resilience Finding meaning Emotional regulation Strategies similar to emotion-focused coping ___________________________________________________________________________11/16/20 15 There’s really nothing we have that isn’t shaped by the world around us, even our thoughts o Conformity 76% conformity rate on experiments in which people are expected to make a decision, while everyone around them gives a wrong answer 37% error rate Groupthink Stanly Milgram experiment Obedience to Authority, you learned about this at CAP Leon Festinger o Cognitive dissonance Uncomfortable psychological tension arises when beliefs and facts are inconsistent This explains a crap ton about debates Instead of changing our beliefs to match facts, though, we try to force the facts to fit our preconceived beliefs Examples of cognitive dissonance Volunteer commitment o The more highly paid someone is, the less sincere they’re going to be. Volunteers are the most dedicated Cults and failed prophecies Testosterone and bisexuality What the hippocampus and hypothalamus and all do – like bullet lists, sexuality, memory, etc
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