Psychology 101, Week 1 of notes
Psychology 101, Week 1 of notes PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hunter Johnson on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 Jonathon Weaver- Introduction to Psychology at Michigan State University taught by David Hambrick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Introduction to Psychology 101: Lecture Notes Chapter Two: The Biology of Mind Guide: New lecture, Vocab, People Chapter two vocab: Biological Perspective: Concerned with the links between biology and behavior. Neuron: A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. Dendrites: A Neurons bushy, branching extensions that’s receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. Axon: The neuron extensions that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Myelin Sheath: A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next. Glial Cells: Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory. Action Potential: Neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. Refractory Period: a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired. Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. All-or-None Response: Neuron’s reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing. Synapse: Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. (Gap at the junction is called Synaptic Gap or Cleft) Neurotransmitters: Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. Reuptake: Neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron. Endorphins: “Morphine within” like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure. Agonist: a molecule that increases a neurotransmitters action. Antagonist: a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter’s action. Nervous System: the bodies speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Central Nervous System (CNS): The brain and spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System(PNS): The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body. Nerves: Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs. Sensory (afferent) Neurons: Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord. Motor (Efferent) Neurons: Neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Interneurons: Neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs. Somatic Nervous System: Division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the bodies skeletal muscles. (Also called skeletal nervous system) Autonomic nervous system (ANS): the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Sympathetic Nervous System: the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy. Parasympathetic Nervous System: the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy. Adrenal Glands: pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress. Pituitary Gland: endocrine systems most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates the growth and controls other endocrine glands. Lesion: A brain lesion is naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Electroencephalogram (EEG): an amplified recoding of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brains surface. PET (Position emission tomography) scan: visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI shows brain anatomy. fMRI (Functional MRI): Technique for revealing blood flow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as structure. Brainstem: Oldest and central core of brain. Begins where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla: the base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing. Thalamus: Brains sensory control center. Located on top of the brain stem. It directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replied to the cerebellum and medulla. Reticular Formation: Nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal. Cerebellum: “Little Brain” located at the rear of the brainstem. Functions include: Processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory. Limbic System: Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres and it’s associated with emotions and drives. Hippocampus: neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. Amygdala: Two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; Linked to emotion. Hypothalamus: regulates the four F’s Fighting, Fleeting, Feeding, Reproduction Cerebral Cortex: Intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; information-processing center. Frontal Lobe: Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements. Parietal Lobe: Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas tgat receive information from the visual fields. Occipital Lobe: Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields. Temporal Lobe: Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; Includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear. Motor Cortex: Area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. Association Areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in the primary motor or sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering and speaking. Neurogenesis: The formation of new neurons. Corpus Callosum: Large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them. Split Brain: a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting at the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them. Biological Psychology: Everything that is biological is psychological. Hippocrates: Father of Western Medicine Phrenology: Wrongheaded theory (1800s) claimed bumps on skull could reveal mental abilities and character traits. (Extremely wrong and horribly flawed) Goal of contemporary biological psychology is to study link between bio activity and psychology events. Neuroimaging: Captures activity of brain Neural Communication: Neurons in brain and nervous system. Sensory Neuron: Carries messages from body’s tissue and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing. Motor Neuron: Carries messages from brain and out of body’s tissues and muscles. It controls movement and regulates responses. Neurotransmitters: Neural impulses reaches the terminal axon it triggers release of neurotransmitters into synaptic gap. Each transmitter has designated pathways. Nervous System is divided into two different parts: Peripheral (Nerve Cells in body) and Central (Brain and Spinal cord) Peripheral Automatic (Controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands.) Sympathetic (Arousing) Central Somatic (Controls voluntary movements) Parasympathetic (Calming) Sympathetic: Expands energy- accelerates heart rate and lowers blood pressure. Parasympathetic: Conserves energy- decelerates heartrate and lowers blood pressure. The Brain Facts: Complex. Average brain 40 billion neurons. 10,000 contacts with other neurons. 400 trillion synaptic connections. Methods and tools of discovery -Clinical Observation: Observing damage of nervous system. Ex. Phineas Gage was a model citizen (before) an iron rod was driven through his head. (After) his accident Gage had a horrible temper and bad profanity. -Lesions and Transection Ex. H.M (Henry Molaison) suffered severe epilepsy. Surgeon decided to remove part of his brain (1953) Removed large parts of Medial Temporal from both hemispheres. Good news: Stopped H.M seizures Bad News: Became severely amnestic Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new memories. Retrograde Amnesia: Inability to remember past memories. Hippocampus: Plays critical role in forming new memories. Lecture Five Continuing Chapter Two 9/21 Procedural Memory: Memory of performance of particular types of action. We do proceed to do the action below conscious awareness. Ex: Riding a bike or tying a shoe. Hemispherectomy: (Rare Procedure) When one part of the cerebral hemisphere is removed or disabled. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Procedure for inducing temporary “Lesions” (Damaged tissue/organ) in which a magnetic field is passed over a particular brain region. Electroencephalogram (EEG): Provides amplified tracings of waves of electrical activity in brain. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): Detects changes in blood oxygenation in different brain regions. The Brain: Older brain structures- Sustain basic life functions and enable memory, emotions and basic drives. - Brainstem Medulla – Base of brainstem controls involuntary functions (Heartbeat and Breathing) Reticular Formation: Filters incoming stimuli (From Spinal cord) and relays information to other areas of the brain. Ex: Visual Information Thalamus: Receives information from all senses (Except smell) and routes it to higher brain regions. Ex: Eyes to control areas for vision. Cerebellum: “Little Brain” Attached to rear of brainstem. Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance. (Plays role in learning Motor Skills) Ex: Playing an instrument Limbic System: Includes – Hippocampus – Involved with forming new memoires. Amygdala: Regulates fear and aggression. Hypothalamus: Regulates the four F’s -Fighting, Fleeting, Feeding and reproduction. Cerebral Cortex 2/3 mass of brain 2mm deep layer that covers the brain (Like bark on a tree) It’s convoluted (Wrinkled) Conserves space -Cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres left and right. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures Frontal Lobes, Temporal Lobes, Occipital Lobe and Parietal Lobe. Frontal Lobe: Involved in motor functions, language, memory and executive functions. Temporal Lobe: Involved in hearing, understanding language and storing autobiographical memories contains auditory cortex. Broca’s Area Wernicke Area 1.)Producing speed 1.) Understanding/ Comprehending speech 2.)Aphasia (Trouble forming response) 2.) Aphasia (Unintelligible responses) Occipital Lobe: Involved in vision. Contains visual cortex Damage to the visual cortex disrupts consciousness It could be difficult to perceive objects. Parietal Lobe (located in both hemispheres): Involved in sensations of touch, pain and temperature. Contains somatosensory cortex 1. Sensory Cortex: Receives information from skin surface and organs. Left hemisphere section receives input from right hemisphere. Motor Cortex (straddles the frontal lobe): Controls voluntary movements. Wilder Penfield: Neurosurgeon map motor cortex in wide-away patients by stimulating difference cortical areas and observed body responses. Association Areas: Found in all four lobes and are responsible for integrating information, linking sensory inputs with stored memories. Probing association areas does not trigger observable reactions. But these areas are responsible for specific functions. Ex: Damage to frontal lobe can alter person’s personality, removing inhibitions and disrupting abilities to plan and reason.
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