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PLS 101 Class Notes September 13- October 4th

by: Tritny Tipton

PLS 101 Class Notes September 13- October 4th PLS 101

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Political Science > PLS 101 > PLS 101 Class Notes September 13 October 4th
Tritny Tipton
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PLS 101 Class Notes September 13- October 4th
American Democracy and Citizenship
Dr. James B. Kaatz
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tritny Tipton on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 101 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. James B. Kaatz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see American Democracy and Citizenship in Political Science at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Political Science Class Notes Tuesday, September 13, 2016 - Majoritarianism: majority rules->can be bad because can cause a specific group of people to constantly be in power-> Religious, Ethnic, and Race-> whoever gets the most votes wins (PURE DEMOCRACY) - Pluralism: sometimes you win, and sometimes you lose->in society there are issues, and groups try to influence those issues-> Examples: Pro-Gun vs. Pro-Gun Control vs. Anti-Gun or Pro-Life vs. Pro-Abortion (For some issues and against some issues) (INDIRECT DEMOCRACY) Federalism - Dual(Layered Cake) vs Cooperative (Marble Cake) Federalism What has made us stronger; made us a Cooperative Federalism? - Constitutional Changes (amending the Constitution)-> the 16 amendment (Income Tax) - Sanctions: Punishment for undesired behaviors 1. Legislative: Voting Rights Act of 1965-thtates wthldn’t let blacks vote-> made them take a literacy test to vote->14 and 15 amendment-> Elastic Clause -> if didn’t follow would send the FBI, because the executive branch enforces laws 2. Judicial: Courts wouldn’t let states create districts that make it to where the blacks didn’t get fair representation, so they said fix it, or they would (The Ward for Chicago) - Incentives: Rewards for desired behaviors A. Grants-In-Aid: $$$ given from one level of government to another for a specific purpose A. Categorical Grant: grant given for a VERY specific purpose, and MUST be spent for that grant (Text Book Grants or Student Lunch Grants) 1. Formula Grant: a formula to revive grant, so a specific set of rules/guidelines to receive (Free and Reduced Student Lunches, Food Stamps, Housing Aid) IF YOU QUALIFY YOU GET IT- There is no limit or cap of how much money you can receive. 2. Project Grant: Limit to how much money can be spent -> Still very specific on what the money can be spent on (Money to Help Grandma Build a House) B. Block Grant: Used for more broad/general purposes (Senior Citizens Grant)-> No specific one thing used for-> Can use for food for grandma, senior centers, and housing all in one grant - Judicial Interpretation a. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): Decided to tax the second National Bank -> Maryland claimed didn’t have the right to have a national bank -> Supreme Court said it was OKAY that they did that A. Upheld Implied Powers B. National Supremacy b. Brown V. Board of Education (1954): The desegregation of school ->Used to be a state issue-> South Sates has laws that said that was illegal -> Are segregated schools a violation of equal protection? Supreme Court decided that YES it does! The US government is now getting involved in states policies. Gave the president power to desegregate school. Tuesday 20, September, 2016 Polls - Public Opinion is the public’s preference on an issue-> we use polls to do this. a. There are more than one kind of poll 1. Elections (Presidents, Mayors) ->You may prefer someone, but you may not vote for them. Have to also consider who can actually vote. Someone who is excited about an election are more likely to vote. 2. Issues (Gun Control, Abortion) -> Random Sample b. Things to look for when you’re looking at a poll 1. The number of people they ask (example: n=1200). The more people they have, the more likely their poll’s results will be true. 2. Margin of Error (Within the Margin): the range of polling data (Example: + or – 3% or between 42-48%) -> The smaller margin of error the more accurate the results 3. Who delivered the poll? Are they going to be bias on the way the information is portrayed, or are they going to change the way a question is asked? 4. Who did they ask? c. Real Clear Politics -> Website -> Look at Ohio, Florida. North Carolina, Colorado, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, & Wisconsin because we don’t know what way they’re going to vote. Elections - Going into election X you are likely to prefer your political party before you even know the candidates involved in the election - How do we come to our preferences? What happens?-> That process is called Political Socialization, which is the process by which we obtain our political values a. Based on two major processes: 1. Primacy: what we learn first sticks to us the most 2. Structuring: earlier learning will shape future learning-> influences how we look at the world - Stages of Political Socialization a. Period One 1. Early Childhood (0-5 years old) shapes your political beliefs-> How you’re being raised-> Family-> Most important Agent of Socialization (Example: church, family dinners, tv shows you watch, rules and consequences) 2. (5-13 years old)-> Family, Place you live, School (Teacher-> Private vs Public, Catholic, Home Schooled)and Peers (Influence of Peers-> Peer Pressure), Internet 3. High School ->Teachers (You look up to and want to be like them), Job (Boss-> Strict vs Not) b. Period Two 1. (18-25 years old)-> College, Freedoms, Professors, Diversity (People and Ideas), Religious Ideas, Career/Real Job (Taxation now matters to you), Military Services, Maturation (There’s a huge difference between an 18 year old and a 25 year old), Voting (the way you vote the first time alludes to how you’ll vote later on in life) c. Period Three 1. (25+ years old)-> Marriage, Kids, Political Leadership - Socialization is completely different for every person, no matter if they’re related-> certain groups tend to have similar socializations - The higher your income the more you’re likely to favor freedom over equality -> Libertarian or Conservative - If you are of lower income you’re more likely to favor equality over freedom -> Liberal or Populist - Religious (The bible is the literal word of god) -> Order over freedom-> Populist or Conservative - African Americas are more likely to be Populists - Gender Gap: Women vote Dem and Men vote Rep - Society is a collection of groups -> Used to help get votes in an election (Need Libertarian and Populist Votes to go for Liberal or Conservative) th Tuesday, October 4 The History of Political Parties - A political party is a group that sponsors people for an election-> they recognize each other a. The democratic party sponsors a person, the person endorses that group Functions of a Political Party 1. They nominate people for elections a. Makes sure person reaches the minimum set of requirements to run in that election 2. Structure the Decisions a. Choice between “two” people for president, governor, mayor, etc. 3. Propose 4. Coordinate First Political Parties - Democratic Republics-> parties first president-> Jefferson-> first political party - Federalists -> party formed to oppose the democratic republics Second Political Parties - 1828 -> they break apart and form the Democratic Party-> first president is Andrew Jackson - 1834-> the Whig Party is created- The Third Political Parties-> Modern Parties - 1860 - NOW - 1856 the first republican runs for president - 1860-> the first republic wins presidency -> Abe Lincoln a. 1860-1896-> the republics ran the presidency, but the rest of the power was mixed b. Lincoln, Johnson, Grant, Harrison, and Grant - 1896-1932-> VERY STRONG REPUBLICAN ERA a. only one democratic president elected and it was an accident - 1932-1968-> VERY STRONG DEMOCRACTIC ERA a. Only one republican president during this era - 1968-NOW-> Balance between the two parties a. More balace than ever before 1. Electoral Realignment-> some groups in society switched their party royalties 2. Critical Elections-> starting point of each of the eras Critical Elections Happen Because…. 1. Critical Issues (Wedge Issue): a. Slavery – 1860 b. The Gold Standard – 1896 c. The Great Depression - 1932 d. Civil Rights & Vietnam War – 1968 2. Create Opposition 3. Leadership of Majority of Party Needs to Fail 4. New Division -> Groups Switch Sides 5. Loyalty 6. Success - EXAMPLES 1932 1968 Depression Vietnam War New Deal Get Out Victory Yes-> Hoover-> Stock Market Crash YES New Deal Condition Southern Strategy - First Time Voters - Switched Sides a. Unions a. South (Democratic to Republican) b. South (Democratic) b. Whites (Dem. To Repub.) c. Catholics - No Longer a Predictor - Switched Sides a. Catholics a. Blacks b. North-East c. Jews


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