Class notes for Chapter 3 and 4
Class notes for Chapter 3 and 4 PSYC 1101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Development 1. Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues a. Developmental Psychology: Branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span. b. Three major issues: i. Nature and nature: We are not formed by either nature or nurture, but by the interaction between them. Biological, psychological, and social-cultural forces interact. ii. Continuity and Stages: Some researches see development as a slow, continuous shaping process which others see it as a sequence of genetically stages or steps iii. Stability and Change: Research shows that we experience both stability and change as we age we change over time. 2. Parental Development a. Stages i. Conception ii. Zygote: The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo iii. Embryo: The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. 1. At this stage the babies heart begins to beat and starts to get nutrients through the mother iv. Fetus: The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. 1. The embryo starts to look like a human b. Teratogens: Chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. i. Alcohol (Fetal alcohol syndrome - FAS) ii. Street/recreational drugs iii. Therapeutic drugs iv. Caffeine v. Nicotine vi. Environmental chemicals vii. Maternal infectious diseases 3. Infancy and Development a. Brain maturation – influenced by both genes and experience b. Critical Period: Ran optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development. i. Some examples include learning languages, learning how to write and speak. ii. Motor development: Infant exercises its maturing muscles and nervous system, skills emerge. 4. Cognitive Development a. Jean Piaget: Studied cognitive development (all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering) b. Piagets Ideas i. Schemas: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. 1. Our intellectual progression reflects unceasing struggles to make sense of our experiences ii. Assimilate: Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas. iii. Accommodate: Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information. c. Theories and Current thinking’s i. Consists of four major stages: 1. Sensorimotor: The stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. a. Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived 2. Preoperational Stage: The stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. a. Egocentrism: The preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view. 3. Concrete Operational Stage: In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. 4. Formal Operational Stage: The stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts. 5. Attachment a. Insecure: people experience discomfort when getting close to others and use avoidant strategies to maintain distance from others. b. Secure: Crave acceptance but remain alert to signs of rejection. 6. Parenting Styles a. Authoritarian: Parents are coercive. They impose rules and expect obedience b. Permissive: Parents are unrestraining. They make few demands and use little punishment. They may be indifferent, unresponsive, or unwilling to set limits. c. Authoritative: Parents are confrontive. They are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules, but, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions. 7. Adolescence a. Pre-conventional Mortality (before age 9): Self-interest obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards b. Conventional Mortality (early adolescence): Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order c. Post conventional mortality (adolescence and beyond): Actions reflects beliefs in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles. Sleep, Consciousness, and Drugs 1. Consciousness a. Awareness of ourselves and our environment b. Cognitive neuroscience: Study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) c. Parallel processing: Attention has various levels to them (doing more than one thing at a time) d. Selective attention: The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus e. Cocktail party effect: In a setting with a lot of distractions and you hear something you did’t before (your name called) f. In-attentional blindness: Something you should see but you don’t see it because you are focused on another task 2. Dual-processing a. The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks b. Blind sight: A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it c. What are the mind's two tracks, and what is dual processing? i. Our mind simultaneously processes information on a conscious track and an unconscious track (dual processing) as we organize and interpret information. 3. Sleep and Dreams a. Sleep: Periodic, natural loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation b. Circadian rhythm: The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms i. For humans our rhythm is set at 25 hours ii. Bodies aren’t in sync with our environment iii. Decreased light --- increases melatonin (hormone) production iv. Increased light --- decreases melatonin production c. Sleep stages i. REM sleep: Rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active. ii. Alpha waves: The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state 1. Slow breathing and irregular brain waves of non-REM stage 1 sleep iii. Delta Waves: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep. iv. Beta Waves: high frequency low amplitude brain waves that are commonly observed while we are awake. 4. Why do we sleep? a. Sleep protects us b. Helps with recuperation c. Restores and rebuild memories d. Supports growth 5. Sleep Disorders a. Insomnia: Hard time getting to sleep or staying asleep i. Increase risk of depression b. Narcolepsy: Sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks i. Triggered by strong emotions c. Sleep apnea: Disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. d. Night terrors: Disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. 6. Why do we dream? a. To file away memories: To file away the day’s memories and experiences b. To develop and preserve neural pathways: stimulating experiences preserve and expand the brains neural pathways c. Make sense of neural static: Dreams help synthesize random neural activity d. Reflect cognitive development: Help stimulate reality Drugs 1. Terminology a. Psychoactive drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods b. Substance use disorder: Continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk c. Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect. d. Addiction: Compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors e. Withdrawal: The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior 2. Stages of Substance use disorder a. Diminished control i. Uses more substance, or for longer, than intended ii. Tries unsuccessfully to regulate use of substance. iii. Spends much time acquiring, using, or recovering from effects of substance. iv. Craves the substance. b. Diminished Social Functioning i. Use disrupts commitment at work, school, or home ii. Continues use despite social problems iii. Causes reduced social, recreational, and work activities c. Hazardous Use i. Continues to use the drug despite hazards d. Drug Action i. Experiences tolerance (needing more substance for the desired effect). ii. Experiences withdrawal when attempting to end use. 3. Types of Psychoactive Drugs a. Depressants: Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions. i. Alcohol: Acts as a disinhibiter and increases tendencies more than you would have when sober 1. Causes slow neural processing, memory disruption, and reduced self-awareness and self-consciousness ii. Barbiturates: Drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment iii. Opiates: Depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. 1. Heroin and morphine are popular opiates b. Stimulants: Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, Ecstasy, and methamphetamine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions. i. Nicotine: a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco. ii. Cocaine: A powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria’ 1. Depletes the brain’s supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine iii. Methamphetamine: A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. iv. Ecstasy(MDMA): Synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition. c. Hallucinogens: Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input. i. LSD: A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid which results in colorful dreams and realities ii. Marijuana: A drug that includes THC, which causes mild hallucinogens.
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