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Controlling Methods of Microbial Growth

by: Michelle Notetaker

Controlling Methods of Microbial Growth BIO205

Marketplace > Mesa Community College > Life Sciences > BIO205 > Controlling Methods of Microbial Growth
Michelle Notetaker
Mesa Community College
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1st section of notes from new material
Dr. Jill Raymond
Class Notes
micro, Microbiology, jillraymond, raymond, Microbes, Microbial, microbialgrowth, microbio, controlling, sterilization disinfectant filtration ultrafiltration high temperature low temperature electromagnetic radiation UV light ionizing radiation GAMMA disinfectant antiseptic alcohols phenolics phenol triclosan oxidizing agents quaternary ammonium compounds c, Sterilization, disinfection, dininfectant, antiseptic, radiation, endospores, endospore, growth




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO205 at Mesa Community College taught by Dr. Jill Raymond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Life Sciences at Mesa Community College.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Controlling Growth of Microbes  Semmelweis, Lister, Pasteur  Shower, brush teeth, wash clothes, dishes with detergent, food in fridge 2 Major Types of Microbial Growth  Sterilization  Disinfection Sterilization: Destruction of all microbes. No pathogens remain Disinfection: Use of a chemical or physical agent (disinfectant) to inhibit or kill microbes on inanimate objects or surfaces. Pathogens may remain. Types of Disinfection “Antisepsis” – Disinfection of tissue via a chemical agent (antiseptic) “Sanitization”- Reduce the number of pathogens on a surface to meet public health standards “Pasteurization”- Use of heat to kill pathogens and decrease number of spoilage organisms Things to Consider when Controlling Growth of Microbes Number of microbes o More microbes take a longer time to kill Duration of exposure Type(s) of microbes o More than 1 species, longer time o Waxy wall bacteria, longer time o Endospore, longer time Temperature o Cold- molecular motion of molecules decreases, take longer time Concentration of disinfectant pH o Alkaline pH, more challenging to microbes Organics (blood, urine, feces, saliva) o Decrease accessibility of chemical to microbes o Interfere with some disinfectants Endospore formation o Harder to kill Actions of Antimicrobial Agents How do these physical and chemical agents kill microbes? 1. Alter membrane permeability a. Bad microbe in, or good out b. Shrivel/burst microbe 2. Denature proteins a. Unfold proteins, cannot function b. Enzymes, block substrate from active site, blocks metabolism 3. Damage nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) Physical Methods of Microbial Control Heat o Action: Denatures protein o Inexpensive, easy, works on all microbes o Consider temp. and time o Ex.) Mycobacterium tuberculosis  Temp. up, duration of exposure down  58C 30min, 65C 2 min, 72C 3 seconds  Dry Heat (oven) o Sterilize, 160C, 2 hours o Plastic (melt) o Not for liquids, doesn’t penetrate o Glassware, instruments  Moist Heat (boiling) o Does penetrate o Not a reliable sterilization method o Ex.) Mycobacterium tuberculosis  120C dry heat, 120 min  120C moist heat, 10 min  Autoclave- pressure and moist heat o 121C with 151lbs of pressure, hold 15min o Culture media, instruments, glassware o Sterilized  Pasteurization o Holding method- 62.9C, 30min o Flash method- 71.6C, 15sec o Ultra-high temp. method- 140C, 3sec  Cold o Decrease growth, metabolism o Fridge halts growth of most pathogens (mesophylls) o Food handling  Drying o Dehydrating stops metabolism o Dried fruit, peas, beans, yeast o Lyophilization (Remove water under vacuum  Filtration o Microbes trapped by filter o Hospitals, HEPA filters HVAC system o Surgical masks o Drugs, vaccines, blood products  Osmotic Pressure o Shrivel/burst microbe o Hypertonic solutions: jam, jelly, syrup, honey  Radiation o Damages nucleic acids (DNA) (T-T) o Ionizing radiation- Preserve food, drugs, vaccines, instruments  Gamma rays, x-rays o Nonionizing radiation- UV light  Labs, operating rooms, morgues


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