Week 6 Notes Principles of Biology
Week 6 Notes Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 6 Notes 4.4 Fermentation Fermentation anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which organic foods are made into simpler compounds =chemical energy (ATP) is produced Inorganic Molecules is the same as saying the use of something other than oxygen Some organisms use IM = NAD+ Anaerobic no use of oxygen Both methods are anaerobic= NAD+ Lactic Acid Fermentation is used by some animals and bacteria Ex: mammalian red blood cells, in muscles that have been exhausted, and in the skeletal system Chemical Reaction of Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvic Acid + NADH lactic acid +NAD+ Lactate Dehydrogenase this enzyme catalyzes this reaction, can go in any direction, left to right (inhibited by acidic conditions) Alcohol Fermentation Produces ethanol (is an alcohol) Reaction is: Pyruvic Acid CO2 + Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde Ethanol NADH NAD+ Pyruvic Acid makes ethanol which is found in alcoholic beverages Ethanol that is above 12% is toxic to yeast Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Some prokaryotes, some types of bacteria, and Archaea use AC, especially Archaea named methanogens Some prokaryotes are facultative anaerobic (can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation… is dependent on oxygen) Clostridia bacteria are obligate anaerobic; oxygen is poison to them=kills them on exposure All types of fermentation release gas except Lactic Acid Fermentation 4. Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids connect with the pathways of glucose catabolism. The carbohydrates include galactose, fructose, and glycogen= glycolysis. The amino acids + glucose catabolism through pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and components of the citric acid cycle. Cholesterol synthesis + acetyl CoA, and the components of triglycerides are picked up by acetyl CoA and enter the citric acid cycle.
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