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PSY 100: Week 1 class notes

by: Natalie Notetaker

PSY 100: Week 1 class notes PSY 100-01

Natalie Notetaker
UW - L

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About this Document

These are notes that cover what we went over in lecture.
General Psychology
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-01 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
**create an account on Sona **think about the reading, more effective than taking notes **don't have to know dates, just have to know the order History & The Science of Psychology 400 ­ 300 B.C. Philosophers began to ponder the nature of our existence: The mind­body problem: Socrates & Plato:  The mind and body are separate  The mind exists after death  We are born with innate ideas Aristotle:  Denied the existence of innate ideas: o Knowledge grows from experience (empiricism) Mind and body are not separable *spa: Socrates, Plato, Aristole Monism vs. Dualism Monism:  there exists only one substance.  It is all physical Dualism:  Physical substance is separable from mental or  spiritual substance. the existence of a “Soul” or spirit. 1600’s René Descartes (1595 ­ 1650)   Agreed with Socrates and Plato  Dualist  Proposed first model of communication between the mind  and the body  Believed that you didn't know anything definitively, the only think you knew for  sure is that if you were think "Do I exist?" then you are alive.  "I think, therefore I am" John Locke (1632 ­ 1704)  Rejected the ideas of Descartes.  At birth, we are a blank slate (Tabula Rasa).  Knowledge originates in experience, therefore science  should rely on observation and experimentation. 1800’s ­ Early 1900’s Wilhelm Wundt (1832 ­ 1920)  1879 ­ Established the 1st psychology laboratory in  Germany.  Founder of experimental, or cognitive psychology.  Testing reaction time, there has to be a connection between the outside world  and the inside brain.  Tested what was inside the brain, first one to do it. William James (1842 ­ 1910)  Father of American psyclogy.  Studied the function of the mind o founded “functionalism” ­ The function of the brain and how that is related to measurable behavior Defined psychology as “The science of mental life.”  Wrote one of the first psychology textbook Modern Psychology Developed from biology and philosophy. 1920’s ­ 1960’s Behaviorism  Psychology is the study of observable behaviors  **A lot of people in physical science claimed that psychology was not a science. In 1920's there was a huge consensus  that they had to get rid of the emotional things. They would  only document measurable, observable behaviors.  You have not learned anything if your behaviors have not  changed (behaviorism left out a huge part of psychology)  John Watson (Strict behaviorist. claimed you can  condition people to behave a certain way. He is the  reason advertisements are so addictive "give me any child from and background and I can change them into any  doctor or thief... I know I am exaggerating" he was just  trying to make a point)  B. F. Skinner (Wrote a bunch of books about utopias.  Strict behaviorist) 1960’s Cognitive revolution:  Psychology again interested in mental processes.  The science of behavior and mental processes. Fields of Contemporary Psychology (not fully inclusive) Research psychologists:  biological ­ concerned about the biology of the brain and how it directly effects your behaviors, neuron transmitters in the  brain.  cognitive ­ actual operations in the brain, this or that and  what happens in your brain to make that particular decision.  developmental ­ how your brain, thoughts, behaviors and  experiences change from life until death  personality ­ What are the roots of personality types?  Genetics and environment.  social ­ Why people do the things they do? Social situations  change the way you behave. How we make judgments about how other people behave. Applied research psychologists:  industrial/organizational (i/o) ­ go into private companies and look at the psychological space and see if it hinders or  improves the industry.  school ­ Go to schools and identify kids who do or do not do  well and try to organize a plan with the teachers to help  those kids succeed.  Clinical application psychologists:  counseling ­ PhD. Work with people who have normal,  everyday problems. Helps people think about the problems  and comes up with strategies to fix those problems.  clinical ­ PhD. Work with people who are hospitalized and  people who are diagnosed with psychological problems. Psychiatrists are medical doctors (M.D.s) who attempt to  address the physical causes of psychological disorders. (they are  not psychologist)  Psychiatrists can prescribe medications. The Science of Psychology The goal of science is to describe, predict, andexplain. The Scientific Method The Process:  Consider observations  Develop theories   Develop hypotheses o a hypothesis is a questions derived from a theory o a hypothesis takes the form of “if X then Y”   Test the hypotheses o measure and/or manipulate variables o “operationalize” behavior  Consider observations Methods of Investigation Naturalistic Observation Observation of behavior in the natural environment. o campus, mall, daycare, zoo, etc.  Limited to describing behavior  provides no explanation of behavior.  relationships between behavior can be observed. spawns new research. Case Studies intense studies of a single individual or group (human or  animal)  spawns new research, but...  case may be atypical, therefore... results have limited generalizability Surveys collect shallow data from large samples  provide information on particular populations, but...  results can be influenced by biased samples, and…  results can depend on the wording of the questions. Correlational Observation Behaviors that are related to (co­vary with) each other are  correlated. The correlation coefficient:  lowercase r  ­1.0 < r < 1.0  the sign indicates the direction  the value indicates the strength o the closer the value to +1.0 or ­1.0, the stronger the  relationship (i.e. the more the behaviors are related) o A value of 0 indicates the lack of a relationship Examples (fictional values): Height and weight are positively correlated r = 0.7 *positive means both variables move in the same direction # of hours spent studying and GPA are positively correlated r = 0.45 # of hours spent drinking alcohol and GPA are negatively  correlated r = ­0.32 *negative means the variables move in opposite  directions Exercise and heart disease are negatively correlated r = ­0.52 Very Important!!!  Correlation DOES NOT imply causation!!! Why not?  The directionality problem  The third variable problem Correlations allow for other possible explanations Humans have a tendency to look for meaningful patterns, even in random data.  “Illusory correlations”


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