KINES 199 Week 7 (10/5 & 10/7) Ch6 & Ch7
KINES 199 Week 7 (10/5 & 10/7) Ch6 & Ch7 Kines 199
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Dooley on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Kines 199 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Schultz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 199 in Kinesiology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Ch. 6–Early Motor Development Early motor behavior– Spontaneous movements: movements that occur without any apparent stimulation o Original theory: no purpose or relationship to future movement o Current theory: building blocks which are similar to future voluntary movements o Examples: Spontaneous arm movements which resemble reaching in later life Spontaneous kicking resembles adult walking Reflexive: involuntary stereotypical reflexes in response to specific external stimuli Reflexes– Occur quickly after onset of stimuli They involve single muscle or specific group of muscles not whole body They cannot be extinguished at any one time Persistence may indicate neurological problems Purpose of reflexes: Builtin responses facilitate survival Reflexive movements result in sensory consequences (adaptations) Reflexes provide building blocks for future movement Progression of reflexes: KNOW that there are three different categories: o primitive: around from the beginning (birth and/or fetus) instincts for survival and protection o postural: help the infant maintain posture in a changing environment begin around 4mo o locomotor: moving in place appear similar to later voluntary movements Types of reflexes you NEED TO KNOW: Primitive Reflexes Postural Reflexes Locomotor Reflexes Grasping reflex: stimuli touch palm with finger or object response hand closes tightly around object time prenatal–4mo especially strong at about 2 weeks can hold about 70% of body weight Moro reflex: stimuli *infant in supine (on back) position* shake head perhaps by tapping pillow response arms, legs, and fingers extend; then arms and legs flex time prenatal–3mo Sucking reflex stimulitouching lips response involves sucking (complex as it involves coordinating swallowing and breathing) time begins in fetal 4mo—then birth to 69mo Rooting reflex stimulitouch cheek response head turns to that side time persists to 69mo Asymmetrical Tonic neck reflex stimuli *infant in supine position* turn head to one side response same side arm and leg extend, opp side arm and leg flex think of a fencer time prenatal–5 mo Symmetrical tonic neck reflex stimuli *in supported sitting position* tip infant forward or backward response (if tipped fwd) neck and arms flex, legs extend; (if tipped bkwd) neck and arms extend, legs flex time prenatal–5 mo Labyrinthine Righting Reflex stimuli *in supported upright position* tilt infant to side OR while holding infant, tilt forwar response head will move to stay upright (when tilted to side, neck will move to opposite side to keep head upright; when tilted forward, neck will tilt upwards to keep head upright) eventually leads to be able to keep head upright while creeping or crawling time 2–12mo Pull up Reflex stimuli *sitting up righthold onto infants hands* tilt forward or backwards response arms flex to stay upright time 3mo–1yr Parachute Reflex stimuli *holding infant* tilt infant to ground response legs extend and arms extend towards the side it was tilted time sideways 6mo–1yr; backwards/forwards1012mo– >1yr Crawling reflex stimuli *infant in prone (on stomach) position* apply pressure to sole of feet response crawling movements of arms and legs time birth to 4mo Stepping reflex stimuli place soles of feet on flat surface responselegs move in walking pattern birth to 4mo Swimming reflex stimuli horizontal in water with head above water response swimming movements in arms and legs Later Infancy– voluntary control of movements better understanding of environment and objects understand how to move on purpose begin playing having meaningful interactions with others postural reactions Motor Milestones fundamental motor skills: o building blocks (simple basic movements that lead into more complex movements) specific movements that lead to general actions they are learned in a general sequence (i.e. walk before run) Sequence of Rudimentary Locomotion 1. Crawling 68 months – need head, neck, and upper body control (Quiz 9) o When infant is on stomach, dragging body on floor, that is crawling—think army crawl 2. Creeping first use “homolateral” same sided technique, then contralateral movement (it’s this that is supposed to contribute to cognitive development). o When infant is on all fours—belly off ground is creeping 3. Walking First Cruising (walking by holding on to objects) Then walking alone Then backward, stairs, and finally perfected walking KNOW ORDER OF ABOVE SKILLS—note that it is in alphabetical order *don’t need to know actual age that each happens, just the order in which they occur Rate limiters or controllers Remember these are individual constraints that inhibit or slow down the attainment of a motor skill Rapidly change during early childhood RATE LIMITERS FOR: o Crawling being able to alternately move limbs, and arm and leg strength o Reaching visual system and coordination, also must be in a balanced position to reach o Walking balance, balance, balance!!!! Also need strength Rate limiters for posture and balance must involve coupling of sensory information and motor response o i.e. if you are looking side to side, you need to know that the room only appears to be moving side to side because you head is moving, not because the room itself is actually moving o to walk one must be able to connect their visual sensory system and motor system to work together Ch. 7–Development of Human Locomotion What is Locomotion? Moving from place to place Moving one, two or four limbs Really any type of movement different possible combinations Early Locomotion Crawling moving on hands and abdomen Creeping moving on hands and knees Another form rolling around Walking First form of upright, bipedal locomotion KNOW DEFINITION o 50% phasing between the legs o period of both feet on the ground (double support0 followed by one foot on ground (single support) Early Walking maximizes stability and balance over mobility, because balance is not good yet arms are out to side—so if they fall they can catch themselves feet are toeout and spread widely really the walking is achieved by shifting weight back and forth from one side to the other small short steps this walking looks very similar in elderly people; they revert back to old ways due to age RATE LIMITERS balance!!!, but also strength and coordination Proficient Walking Began sacrificing more stability for more mobility Bigger steps Less wide base of support Opposition (swinging) of arms and legs No longer hold arms out to side Lots more independent movements (arms swinging, head moving, pelvis twisting, hips, torso, etc. all moving) Developmental changes in Walking Early childhood: o By age 4, essential components of proficient walking are present Older adulthood note the similarities to early walking!!! o Maximizing stability over mobility o Outtoeing increases. o Stride length decreases. o Pelvic rotation decreases. o Speed decreases. o Objects are used as balance aids. o RATE LIMITERS IN ELDERLY WALKING Structural constraints bone density, muscle strength, etc. Any changes associated with age can act as rate controllers Running Occurs 6 to 7 months after walking starts KNOW DEFINTION o 50% phasing between legs o One leg on ground (single support) followed by flight phase (no feet on ground) with no period of double support (two feet on ground) Early Running Stability over mobilityregress to some of “early walking” behaviors o i.e. arms out to side, short steps, little rotation RATE LIMITERS IN EARLY RUNNING o Strength, balance, and coordination Proficient Running Less stability, more mobility Increased stride length Planar movement Narrow base of support Trunk rotation Opposition Developmental Changes of Running Early running: o As children grow, qualitative changes in running patterns, combined with physical growth and maturation, generally result in improved quantitative measures of running (i.e. faster mile time, or faster 100 yd sprint time). Later running: o Patterns help increase stability and balance. o Decreases appear in stride length, range of motion, number of strides, and Speed. o Rate controllers are balance and strength. o Exercise can allow seniors to run for years! Again, as we age we regress back to early learning habits o RATE LIMITERS IN LATER RUNNING Running requires greater generation of force and ability to balance. Smaller changes in constraints can affect later running. FOCUS ON THIS BULLET ↑ : smaller changes in strength and balance will effect running BEFORE it effects walking because running is more difficult An individual may have the ability to run, but may not have the opportunity to do so or chooses not to. Jumping, Hopping, Leaping: Jumping—land on two feet Hopping—lands on the same foot that they propelled off of Leaping—lands on the opposite foot that they propelled off of Early jumping Children often begin simple jumping before age 2. People can perform either vertical or horizontal (standing long) jump. Early characteristics: o Jumping only vertically o Onefoot takeoff or landing o No or limited preparatory movements (i.e. they won’t swing arms back or bend knees a lot in order to jump farther their main focus is jumping with stability) Proficient Jumping Preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force. Both feet leave ground at same time. Arm swing used during jump. For vertical jump, force is directed downward; body is extended. For horizontal jump, force is directed down and backward; knees are flexed during flight. Developmental Changes of Jumping Continuous growth in body size and strength contribute to quantitative improvements. It is not guaranteed that every child will eventually master jumping. RATE LIMITERS: o Development of enough force to bring own body into the air from a still position. Early Hopping Hopping starts later than jumping. Early characteristics: o Support leg is lifted rather than used to project body o Arms are inactive o Swing leg is held rigidly in front of body Proficient Hopping Swing leg leads hip and moves through full range of motion. Support leg extends fully at hip. Oppositional arm movement generates force. Support leg is flexed on landing. Developmental Changes in Hopping Few children under 3 can hop repeatedly Adaptations of the neuromuscular system moderate the force of landing o Due, at least in part, to an interaction of individual constraints in the body and within the framework of the principles of motion RATE CONTROLLERS IN HOPPING o Depends on the postural system’s ability to balance the body on one limb for a succession of hops o Ability to generate enough force to life the body with one limb, recover, and quickly generate enough force to hop again Galloping, Sliding, and Skipping Involve combination of skills previously obtained: stepping, hopping, leaping Gallop and slide are ASYMMETRIC. o Gallop: forward step on one foot, leap on other o Slide: sideways step on one foot, leap on other Skip is SYMMETRIC: alternating stephops on one foot, then on the other. Early Galloping, Sliding, Skipping • Arrhythmic and stiff movements uncoordinated • Little or no arm movement • Little or no trunk rotation • Exaggeration of vertical lift • Short stride or step length Proficient Galloping, Sliding, Skipping • The arms are no longer needed for balance. • In skipping, the arms swing rhythmically in opposition to the lags and provide momentum. • Child can use the arms for another purpose during galloping and sliding, such as clapping they have independent movement of arms Order in which they appear!!! 1. Galloping (around 23 years) 2. Sliding 3. Skipping (47 years) a. KNOW THE ORDER (not necessarily ages) Rate Limiters for Galloping, Sliding, Skipping Galloping o Coordination (uncoupling legs) o Differential force production (legs performing different tasks) Sliding: coordination (turning to one side) Skipping: coordination (ability to perform two tasks with one leg)
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