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PSY 100: Week 2 notes

by: Natalie Notetaker

PSY 100: Week 2 notes PSY 100-01

Natalie Notetaker
UW - L

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About this Document

These are the notes that cover what we went over in lecture.
General Psychology
Class Notes
Introduction to Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-01 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
The Science of Psychology pt. 2 & The Brain Experimentation Rules out alternative explanations by controlling for those  explanations.  Manipulate only a single factor (variable) o The factor believed to be the causal agent  Measure the resulting change in behavior o The behavior you believe to be influenced by the causal agent Independent variable (IV):  The variable that is manipulated by  the researcher. Dependent variable (DV):  The variable that is measured by the  researcher.  The value of the dependent variable depends on changes in the independent variable. Example: I believe that amount of vitamin C influences math ability. To test:    Randomly divide the class into two groups  Provide one group with vitamin C pills and the other group  with placebo pills  Administer a math test  Compare the results of the two groups o Independent variable = vitamin C o Dependent variable = math ability Random Selection:  Ensures a sample that is representative of the population. Random Assignment:  Ensures that groups are equal on as many dimensions as  possible. Logic of experimentation: By starting with two equal groups and treating them  differently, any measurable changes in the behavior  between the groups must be caused by the treatment (IV). Making sense of the results Summarize the data: Average, or mean  = sum of all scores divided by the number  of scores Median:  the middle score when scores are arranged from least  to greatest  Mode:  the score that appears most often Drawing conclusions:  Making inferences Inferential statistics  Identify the probability that the observed difference between groups is due to chance.  The lower the probability, the better.  If the probability is low enough (<5%) we conclude that  rather than chance, the IV is responsible for the observed  difference. The Brain The neuron:  an individual nerve cell. Nerve:  a collection of neurons. Structures of the Neuron Soma (cell body):  contains the nucleus and provides for the life  processes of the cell. Dendrites:  receives messages from other neurons. Axon:  carries information from the cell body to the terminal  buttons. Terminal buttons:  pass information to the next neuron in the  sequence. Myelin sheath:  insulating fatty tissue that dramatically increases  transmission speed. Neuronal Communication Action potential (nerve impulse):  a rapid increase in positive  charge that travels down the axon.  “all or none” response.  The synapse (not part of the cell):  the gap between the terminal  buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next.  Synaptic transmission proceeds in only one direction, and  can be either excitatory or inhibitory. Neurons communicate using neurotransmitters.  Examples: o Acetylcholine (ACh) o Dopamine (DA) o Serotonin (5­HT) o GABA o Norepinephrine (NE) The synaptic cleft:  Approximately 20nm o 1/500,000 cm The Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS):  Brain  Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):  Autonomic nervous system o “Parasympathetic” ­ not on edge, relaxed o Symapthetic ­ Flight or Fight  Somatic nervous system o voluntary muscle control The spinal cord contains reflex arcs that receive sensory input  and produce motor output before involving the brain.  doctor hitting your knee with a reflex hammer Structures of the Brain Brainstem Medulla:  Heartbeat  general “cardio­vascular functions”  breathing Reticular formation:  physiological arousal ­ alertness Cerebellum  coordinated movement and balance Limbic System Thalamus:  relays sensory info. Hypothalamus: directly below thalamus  Motivational systems: (the four f's) o feeding o fighting o fleeing o reproducing Amygdala  emotions ­ mostly negative emotions (pain, fear)  morphine mutes the action of the limbic system so you don't  care, that's why they're so addictive Hippocampus:  new memory formation  If you damage the hippocampus you'll remember everything  happening until you look away and then you'll forget it. Cerebral cortex:  thin, massively folded outer covering of the  brain.  nearly all information processing occurs in the cortex  It's the bark of the brain  folds are related to complexity of thinking (i.e. humans have  a lot of folds, frogs have no folds) Why so convoluted?  To increase surface area! Each hemisphere of the cortex receives information from, and  controls the opposite side of the body!  Contralateral functioning (left hemisphere controls right side  off the body and vice versa) Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe:  Planning  judging  speaking  problem solving  motor cortex o controls movement Parieta l lobe:  somatosensory cortex (a.k.a. sensory cortex)  Directly behind the moto cortex so if you need to, for  example, brush a spider off your arm. o receives input from body o registers body position o sense of where you are in space (let's you know if you  are going to run into something or where you are going) o everybody's brain is a little different Phantom limbs  Created by input to adjacent regions on the somatosensory cortex. o Loss of hands ­ input from arm and face o Loss of foot ­ input from leg and... o genitals  ...which can produce an orgasm in the phantom  foot! Occipital lobe:  primary visual processing area Information from the right visual field is sent to the left  hemisphere and vise versa.  both eyes have a left and right visual field Temporal lobe:  auditory processing  object recognition (ability to tell a bike from a puppy) o RH stroke can lead to prosopagnosia Hemispheric Dominance  left hemisphere (LH):  language  Right Hemisphere (RH):  control and recognition  facial emotions


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