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Mythology Unit 1, Week 1-6 Typed Notes

by: Hannah Chin

Mythology Unit 1, Week 1-6 Typed Notes C C 303

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Covers Unit 1 notes from August 24 to September 28, all lectures for first exam
Intro to Classical Mythology
James Patterson
Class Notes
Greek Mythology, mythology
25 ?




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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Chin on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to C C 303 at University of Texas at Austin taught by James Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Classical Mythology in Classical Mythology at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 1, Lecture #1 & #2, 24 & 26 August 2016  What is mythology?  Study of myth, obviously  What qualifies as a “myth?”  Legend, explanation of an event/origin story, fictional; many varying opinions among people  Buxtonian-Pattersonian definition  four requirements:  Narrative – a story  Meaning (to a group of people) – could be an explanation or origin story or have a moral  Generational longevity – passed down through generations  Malleability – able to change with the times  Narrative must be malleable in order to make the meaning more relevant to the era and continue its generational longevity and survive  Applies to myths, legends, and fairy tales  Ethnic group called Indo-Europeans initially centralized in area between Black Sea and Caspian Sea  From 5000-3000 BC, migrated outward all over Eurasia from Celtic to Baltic to Vedic to Tocharian regions  Originally one main Indo-European god, Dyeus Pəter  Linguistic jargon  In Greece, became Zeus Pater  Cloud Gatherer  In Rome, became Iovis Pater  Jus, Justice Father, God of Law  In Veda, became Dyaus Pitr  diary, journey, journal; Father of Light  Original wife was Dione, but later Hera  Indo-Europeans imposed their gods on pre-established people groups in area  Resulted in many myths of patriarchal Indo-Euro gods mixing with matriarchal pre-Greek societies to symbolize “marrying” the cultures together <Zeus’ many affairs represented combining with the various female deities in different regions>  Men v. Women becomes a common theme in myths  Imposition of Indo-Euro sky gods over pre-Greek earth gods also becomes a common theme in many myths Factoids  Ancient Greek did not identify collectively as of Greek “ethnicity;” they preferred to associate more with their specific town/city  “Hellenic” is the Greek word for Greek, “Greek” is the Roman word for Greek CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 2, Lecture #3, 29 August 2016 Cosmogony and Hesiod  Cosmogony  “Cosmos” = order; “gony” = beginning  the birth of order  Theogony  birth of the gods  Study of the beginning of the universe  Hesiod wrote the Theogony around 700 BC (time period not definite)  About 50 years after Greeks changed their alphabet to be more “modern”  Learned everything he knows about the gods from the nine muses {goddesses of art and literature} on Mt. Helicon  In the very beginning was Chaos (Chasm, the Abyss)  Chaos derived from chasm  Refers to nothingness, DOES NOT refer to panic/destruction/modern-day definition  The opposite of order  Descendants are Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx (night), Hemera (day) and Aether (air), and underworld dwellers such as the Fates and Hypnoes  Bad things being created first reflects pessimistic worldview of mortality  Later came Gaia/Ge (Mother Earth, Mother Nature)  First chthonic deity {chthonic meaning from or relating to the Earth}  Gaia has a son, Ouranos (sky)  Cosmic force Eros (erotic desire) appears and causes Gaia and Ouranos to relentlessly procreate  Gaia gives birth to the Titans, the Hundred-Handers with fifty heads, the Cylcopes, and other monsters  Ouranos fears his children will overthrow him and forces them back into Gaia’s womb (AKA Tartarus, a cave in the Earth)  Causes great pain for Gaia, so she tells her children to take revenge on Ouranos and asks for a someone to punish him for her  Kronos volunteers, so Gaia gives him a sickle and tells him to castrate Ouranos the next time she and him are copulating  Kronos does so, which allows the children to escape, and he throws Ouranos’ penis into the sea  From the blood that dripped onto the ground/into Gaia, the Furies, giants, and ash tree nymphs were born  From the penis and the sea foam that gathered around it, Aphrodite was born  Titan siblings Rheia and Kronos get together and create the Golden Age  Golden Age era of prosperity for humans, happy times, no troubles  From oldest to youngest children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon, Zeus  Kronos also afraid of being overthrown by his children, so after Rheia gives birth to them, he eats them  Rheia manages to save Zeus by tricking Kronos into eating a rock instead later called the Omphalos and giving Zeus to a cave nymph to be raised  Zeus later returns pretending to be a servant and tricks Kronos into vomiting up his siblings, which leads to the Titanomachy Things to Keep in Mind  When studying Greek mythology, be sure to always think about... 1) The worldview the myths create 2) How you would grow up believing these myths were the way the world worked  Vital principles of Greek Thought/Philosophy, recurring themes throughout myths  All things are like and unlike all other things; everything is comparable  If “x” exists, its opposite anti-“x” must also exist CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 2, Lecture #4, 31 August 2016 Rise of Zeus and the 12+ Olympians  Hestia (goddess of the hearth)  Represents fire, which implies civilization  Not very many myths about her  Demeter (goddess of the harvest and agriculture)  Associated with wheat  Hera (goddess of marriage)  Considered queen of the gods, married her brother Zeus  Sometimes associated with a peacock  Hades (god of the dead)  Name means “unseen one”  Associated with a cornucopia because food grows up from the earth, beneath which Hades resides Poseidon (god of the sea, not the ocean, and earthquakes)  Earthquakes thought to originate from the sea  Rides a hippocampus (half horse, half fish)  Associated with a trident  Zeus (god of the sky and storms)  Name means “Mr. Light,” king of the gods, also called Cloud-Gatherer  Associated with lightning, an aegis (a shield), and eagles  Saved by mother Rheia as a child by feeding his father Kronos a rock instead of him  When Kronos vomited up the rock, the Omphalos, it landed in Delphi, which became known as the “belly button of the world,” meaning it was the center  Omphalos also plugged an entrance to the chthonic realm when it fell, alluding to sky dominating over the earth in the way the Greeks presided over the pre-Greek culture  War between the Olympians and the Titans = Titanomachy  “machy” = war  10 year battle, sky vs. earth  Symbolic of Indo-Europeans bringing order to pre-Greeks  Themis (Titan goddess of justice) fought with Olympians along with her son Prometheus  “Justice is on the Olympians’ side”  Olympians won, Titans received various punishments  Titan Atlas forced to hold up the sky from the earth  Titan Kronos exiled to the Island of the Blessed, where he brought about a Golden Age for humans  Other Titans thrown in Tartarus  Partition of the world among the 3 sons  Zeus: sky, Poseidon: sea, Hades: Tartarus  No one possesses the land; it’s where humans are and is free for all the gods to mess with  Rheia was upset with the war, so she released to Giants  Gigantomachy  While Titanomachy was more directly between the Olympians and Titans, Gigantomachy was not only between the sky and earth but the sky deities also spread out over the earth after winning  Symbolic of conquering the barbaric Earth  After Kronos left, ended Golden Age, so humans must now work  Evident by existence of Demeter, Athena, and Apollo giving agriculture, strategy, and medicine respectively  Good things must now be given to us because we live in bad times in which we suffer  Reflects pessimistic worldview, “we get to live in the era where we suffer and work”  Zeus + Dione (original Indo-European wife) = Aphrodite (goddess of erotic love), lac of continuity intended  Aphrodite’s power of love often used by gods as excuse for their affairs, “It’s not my fault, it’s Aphrodite”  Hera on her own = Hephaestus (god of smithing, fire, metalworking)  Associated with axe or some other kind of weapon  When Zeus found out, he was hypocritically upset with Hera for having a child without him, so Hephaestus was thrown off Mt. Olympus and his legs broke  Is now crippled and stays in a volcano  Also is married to Aphrodite despite being ugly  Zeus + Hera = Ares (god of violent war)  Associated with helm and armor  Constantly having affairs with Aphrodite  Zeus + Metis (Titan goddess of wisdom)= Athena (goddess of wisdom, battle tactics, and others)  Athena presides over strategic aspect or war, Ares with brute strength, bloodthirsty aspect  Zeus also afraid of being overthrown by wise Metis’ child, so he eats her while she’s pregnant  One day, Zeus has a terrible headache and has Hephaestus come and cleave his head open to get rid of it, and Athena emerges from Zeus’ forehead fully grown in full armor  Associated with armor and weapons  Zeus + Leto (Titan daughter) = twins Apollo (god of light, technical music, and others) and Artemis (goddess of the hunt, the moon, and other)  Apollo associated with the lyre or the bow and arrow  Artemis associated with a bow and arrow and a relatively shorter skirt  Zeus + Maia (Titan daughter) = Hermes (god of messengers, rocks, thieves, and others)  Associated with a messenger hat, wings on his feet, and a caduceus (a herald’s wand)  Zeus + Semele (mortal woman) = Dionysus (god of wine, madness, and theatre)  After doing the sex, mortal Semele strongly requested to see Zeus’ immortal form, but when she did, she exploded and died, so Zeus put the fetus into his thigh from which Dionysus was born Factoid  Chthonic deities were often depicted with snake legs and/or wings  For example, Erichthonius was half man, half snake because he was born from the ground CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 2, Lecture #5, 2 September 2016 Wives/Sexual Partners of Zeus  Included but not limited to other deities, semi-divinities, and mortals  Also spirits of the earth, such as local goddesses, nymphs (associated with a specific body of water), and dryads (associated with a specific one tree)  Reflects imposition of sky gods on all chthonic pre-Greek spirits and deities  Also reflects dominance of men over women and some boys  Myth of Io  Io was a nymph priestess of Hera in Argos; Zeus sees her, pursues her when she tries to run from him, and rapes her  When he hears Hera coming, Zeus turns Io into a cow to try to hide her, but Hera comes, knows better, asks for a gift and Zeus has to give her Io  Hera takes Io and ties her to a tree and has her right hand man, Argos Panoptes (meaning “all eyes”) watch and guard her  Zeus saves Io by sending Hermes to kill Argos  the first blood shed  Hera saves Argos by turning him into a peacock; “all eyes” then alludes to peacock’s feather design  For Io, Hera sends a gadfly to torment her as a cow, causing her to run all the way to Egypt where she pleads to Zeus and eventually gets turned back into a human  As “compensation” for her misery, Io becomes the mother of Epaphus and Keroessa who become famous later  Epaphus becomes a king of Egypt  Keroessa becomes a princess of Byzantium  Myth reflects pessimistic view and the patriarchal society that punished Io rather than Zeus  Also introduces how gods and goddesses embody the worst aspects of humans (i.e. jealousy, lust, anger) CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 3, Lecture #6, 7 September 2016 Humans, Gender and Sexuality  Some works that discuss further:  Michel Foucault’s History of Sexuality  Sir Kenneth Dover’s Greek Homosexuality  Sexual roles in ancient Greek culture  Active  Men: may take boys on as apprentices  Passive  Seen as inferior to active physically and intellectually  Women: typical to always be dominated by men  Girls: not considered a woman until her first menstruation  Boys: not considered a man until after shaving his first beard  Why do humans exist according to Greek mythology?  To give the gods gifts  Do ut des  translates to “I give so you give”  Humans sacrifice to gods so that they will give them good things  i.e. sacrifice to Zeus so that he gives rain to water the crops  Do ut abeas  translates to “I give so you leave me alone  Humans sacrifice to gods so that the gods will not bother them or cause destruction  i.e. Zeus gives too much rain, flooding the crops and drowning people  Five Ages of Greek Mythology  Golden Age  Ruled by Kronos, everyone and everything is happy and good  Story of Prometheus – explains the beginning of sacrificing to the gods  A Titan that didn’t fight against the Olympians in the Titanomachy  At Mekone, the gods and men decide who gets what part of the animal in a sacrifice, and when Prometheus presents Zeus with the choice between the parts of the animal, he tricks him by covering the bones in fat to make them look good and presentable and covers the good meat with the skin  Prometheus is trying to help humans by getting them the better part of the animal  Zeus chose the good-looking bones, so as a result, the humans would get to keep the meat and burn the bones for sacrifice to Zeus  Is Zeus omniscient? Yes, but he likely chose the bones anyway so he could justify punishing Prometheus and the humans  Zeus is upset, so he takes fire away from humans and hides it in a fennel stalk, symbolizes taking away civilization and prevents humans from cooking the meat Prometheus won for them and also burning the bones for sacrifice so the gods will get to punish humans even more  Prometheus punished by being chained to a rock where Zeus’ eagle repeatedly comes and eats his liver that grows back every day  Why was Prometheus a threat? He was sympathetic to humans and ruined Zeus’ vision for humans by winning the meat for them; Zeus was also paranoid of being overthrown like his father and grandfather  Story of Pandora’s Box – origin of women and how they are to interact with men  The box is actually a jar, but was called a box due to a mistranslation  Zeus requests for a beautiful maiden named Pandora (who comes to represent all mortal women) to be created and given to mortal men as a burden and punishment since they will have to take care of her and tend to the destruction she causes  Pandora marries Prometheus’ brother Epimetheus (name translating to “after thought” while Prometheus’ is “before thought”) and is given the jar from the gods as a gift; she’s warned not to open it but she does and releases all the misery unto the world  Scared, she closes it as quickly as possible but traps Hope, the last thing inside the jar  So ends the Golden Age  The humans who died during the Golden Age became daimones (good, kind spirits)  “daimon” later becomes “demon” in modern language despite different denotations  Silver Age  In this era, a human lived as a baby for 100 years then suddenly grew old before dying  They become makares, happy old people living underground  Bronze Age  Humans were characterized by having hands coming out of their shoulders, a lot of killing and violence  They went to the underworld and were forgotten  Heroic Age  Era of demigods  Iron Age  The era we currently live in full of suffering and death; in which we fight, lie, and steal  Two general conceptions of time  Linear  Time only progresses and things only get worse as it goes on  Pessimistic  Cyclical  Hope that Kronos will overthrow Zeus and being back another Golden Age for humans  Optimistic Factoids  Chthonic deities are commonly thought to be feminine or women since the sky gods often dominated over them  For example, Gaia is Mother Earth  Sacred Band of Thebes  Ancient Greek elite military unit made up of solely gay male lovers  Because they were fighting with the ones they loved, fought better and the whole unit was very well-knit  But they were often forced into service  The comedian Aristophanes in his speech during Plato’s Symposium proposed alternate theory on the origin of men and women; also dealt with gender and sexuality  In prehistoric times, humans existed as two men, two women, or a man and a women combined into a spherical being with two sets of every feature  Two men humans were from the sun, two women from the earth (being chthonic again), and men-women from the moon  But they grew too powerful and while the gods wanted to destroy them, Zeus proposed to just separate them with his lightning, which they did; explains why there are now two genders and that sexuality exists because humans are instinctively seeking out their other half that they were formerly bonded with  Compared to more popular Pandora myth, portrayed women more positively and as equals to men Things to Keep in Mind  Consistency exists within myths, rarely between  Taking myths too literally undermines its authenticity and makes it not make sense  Medicine and philosophy were solely from men’s perspective  i.e. the womb was thought to physically move around the body and cause illness CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 3, Lecture #7, 9 September 2016 Poseidon and the Sea  Theme of nature vs. civilization  Nothing is more uncivilized than the sea; humans can’t live there  humans don’t belong there  Both the sea and land is full of monsters but the sea is much worse  Historically, if a ship had to sail from Greece to Italy, even though it took much longer, they would follow the coastline for fear of losing sight of land and having to face sea monsters th th  Peutinger Tablet: 4 or 5 century AD; an ancient seemingly inaccurate map of the Mediterranean region; purposefully ignored the bodies of water between land masses because ancient sailors would not bother trying to cross the sea and would only navigate close to the shore  Genealogy of the Sea  Gaia + Ouranos = Doris and Oceanos  Gaia + Pontus (another of Gaia’s sons; primordial sea god) = Nereus (the Old Man of the Sea because of his gentle, faithful nature)  Shape shifting prophet heroes often had to wrestle with in their quests to get information  Half human half fish (reflects nature vs. civilization)  Nereus + Doris = Fifty nereids  Includes Thetis, the mother of Achilles  Also Amphitrite who later married Poseidon  Initially, she ran away from him, but Poseidon used a dolphin to force her to come back and marry him  The majority of monsters dislike humans being in nature because they don’t belong there, but nereids are nicer to humans  This family tree reflects how the world was supposed to be before the Olympians came and brought both order and humans Factoids  Gaia and Pontus had two other children, Phorkys (god of sea dangers) and Ceto (personification of sea dangers)  Phorkys and Ceto had children together and produced the Gorgons and the Sirens  Gorgons (with snake hair) again represent a chthonic human-animal hybrid CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 4, Lecture #8, 12 September 2016 Hades and the Underworld  Archaic Greek definitions of life; being alive vs. dead  Body  Blood  Thumose (smoke) led to emotion; anemos (wind) created breath  Psyche  Soul; unclear definition  Phren  Similar to the brain but more associated with thought  Nous  Mind  Memory  Key factor that distinguished individuals and defined life  Generally, when people died, they went to either Tartarus (the underworld), the Isle of the Blessed, or very rarely the sky  If the last two, their bodies were resurrected  Access points to Tartarus where people or things can cross  One thought to be in every city  Caves, plutoniun (sacred shrines to Hades; deep scary caves)  Holes in the ground {a modern-day manhole would be considered an entrance to Tartarus}  Strange lakes (having a weird color, volcanic fumes, or being filled with dead birds)  Associated with Tartarus because of River Styx that’s connected to certain bodies of water  Hermes was the guide for souls to the underworld after separating from their bodies  Hermes the only one allowed to go to the underworld entrance but even he cannot go beyond Charon; just drops the souls off there  Charon (ferryman that helps take souls to Tartarus)  Etruscan version (on Italian peninsula) called Vanth, painted outside tomb entrances as a guard to keep the dead in  Cerberus (guard dog)  Had 50 heads, but was depicted in art with only three because it was easier to draw  Had snakes attached to its body to symbolize that it’s from the underworld  Translates into “spot”  Job is to keep the dead in Tartarus but pays no mind to any newcomers  Fountain of Lethe (fountain of forgetfulness)  Dead souls must drink from it upon arrival  Destroys memories  destroys individuality  destroys life  Many religions and philosophies tried to teach how people could avoid drinking from it when they died  Persephone (goddess of spring, queen of the underworld)  Actual ruler of the underworld, even over Hades; greatly feared by others  Similar to how in mafia families, deals are always made in the kitchen and the mother is always the real head of the family  Hades is the king with her because the Indo-Europeans wanted to have to male Hades marry the original queen  Is there judgment or punishment?  Yes, there is but not for humans  Neither reward nor punishment, all are equalized by death  No suffering, just boredom  Three “judges”  Aeacus (formerly a mythological king)  Holds the keys to the underworld  Mihos (formerly a lion-god creature)  Judges the good and bad deeds of mythological things but not humans  Rhadamanthys (formerly a wise king)  Mihos’ brother  Judge of the Isle of the Blessed  Lives there to supposedly keep justice but doesn’t really have to do anything, since everything is essentially perfect Factoid  If a dead person wanted to leave Tartarus, they would have to find someone to replace them in their absence CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 4, Lecture #9, 14 September 2016 Pygmalion and the Statue  Written by Orid who lived from 43 BC to 17 AD  Propoetides (daughters of Propoetus) on Cyprus tried to abstain from lustful lifestyle  Angered Aphrodite because they were trying to deny her  They refused to take part in ritual orgies to honor Aphrodite  As punishment, Aphrodite turned them in to the first prostitutes  King Pygmalion resented the prostitutes and wanted a pure virgin as his lover  Made a marble statue in the image of the woman he wanted  unhealthy obsession with it  During festival, he prays to Aphrodite for a lover, and his wish is granted by his statue coming alive as his ideal girl  They get married; happy ending for Pygmalion and the statue  Moral of the story: Women were punished for not praying, while the man was rewarded  Need to honor the gods or they will destroy your life  Women are held in less esteem than men Hippocrates and the Scythians  Greek civilization  Logikos/logikoi way of thinking = reasons for everything, natural explainable reasons  Intrinsic locus of control  patriarchal  Scythians nomadic tribe  Similar to the Greeks, managed to defeat the Persians  Wore pants, used soap, allowed women to fight, had no permanent civilization  all seen as barbaric to Greeks  Women actually required to defeat at least 3 enemies on the battlefield before being allowed to marry  Theologos/Theologoi way of thinking = world controlled by the logic of the gods, no real reason for things  Extrinsic locus of control  Won over Greeks in battle because while Greeks only used their horses to ride into battle and then dismount, Scythians would fight while on their horses, giving them the upper hand  matriarchal  Among Scythians, impotence a big problem  Hippocrates (460-377 BC), a Greek medical doctor, diagnosed the cause from riding on horseback and wearing pants  Scythians believed it was caused by Aphrodite  Example of myth vs. reality  Scythians placed blame on gods, while Hippocrates believed cause to be a physical consequence  Power of myth in reality; reflects deeply held beliefs Aphrodite and Sexual Health  Reproductive vs. sexual health  Demeter – reproductive health, fertility; Aphrodite – sexual health, erotic love, procreating or not  Lack of consistency between Aphrodite’s 2 births = syncretism {combining multiple things into one}  Either from the sea foam and Ouranos’ penis, or from Zeus and Dione  Also evident of combining two gods (from Greek and pre-Greek) of same thing into one  After being born and emerging from the sea, Aphrodite established a cult in Paphos, Cyprus  later goes to Cythera and sets up a temple there  she may be referred to as Cytherian  Movement from east to west may reflect that Aphrodite may have had an Eastern origin  Also suggests that there may be more than one of her  Alludes to syncretism and blending of cultures  Aphrodite’s Belt  Source of her power of erotic love; suggests her power isn’t intrinsic  Story of Hera asking to borrow the belt to seduce Zeus, which makes him unable to control his lust  Married to Hephaestus but cheats on him many times with Ares  Combination of Aphrodite and Ares  sex and violence  Aphrodite + Ares = Eros (god of sexual desire), different from primordial cosmic force  Uses bow and arrows of erotic desire, which spreads Aphrodite’s power and influence  Always depicted as a child, never grows up  Omnia vincit amor = “love conquers all”  Reflects Aphrodite’s immense power over uncontrollable lust  Extrinsic conqueror  Story of Aphrodite and Anchises  As payback, Zeus shoots one of Eros arrows at Aphrodite and makes her fall in lust with the mortal Anchises; shameful for a god to do so with a mortal  She comes to him in disguise to 1) prevent him from exploding from seeing her immortal form and 2) to not let him know she’s a goddess because humans know better than to entangle with the gods  She gets pregnant even though the power’s worn off by the morning; Aphrodite ashamed and mad at Zeus but still keeps the child; but Anchises is crippled after seeing her true form  Child, Aeneas, grows up and becomes great Trojan hero  Story reflects that her power is so strong, even Aphrodite can’t control it properly  Aphrodite + Hermes = Hermaphroditus (god of hermaphrodites and effeminates)  Born a man but a nymph saw him and tried to rape him but he escaped  Afterwards, he made the stupid decision to go and bathe in a lake after escaping a nymph who dwells in bodies of water; she tackles him and prays to become one with him  They become one, and now possess both women and men physical traits  created a hermaphrodite Factoid  In art, gods were usually taller to distinguish them from mortals CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 4, Lecture #10, 16 September 2016 The Amazonomachy  Mythological Amazon tribe  Most likely inspired by the Scythians who allowed their women to go into battle with them  Captured men solely for procreation and then killed them  Even killed any male kids born so that the tribe consists only of women  Opposite of patriarchal Greeks  Amazonomachy war between Amazons and Greeks  Greeks won, establishing male dominance and Greek power Five Views of the Afterlife  Homeric  Very special souls used to be able to go to the Isle of the Blessed and other to eternal punishment but not anymore  Now after death, your soul lives on as a shadow without any memory  Neither reward nor punishment, equality in death despite anything you did in life  St. Augustan (supposed to be early Christian)  After death, your body both external and internal is resurrected in its most perfect and beautiful form with your soul and made immortal  Whole body both in and out is visible to all the other dead, so that everyone can praise their creator by looking at each other’s perfect bodies, which is what you do for all eternity  Pythagoras  Your soul is reincarnated into another earthly body, either human or animal  You can’t choose where you end up and this cycle never ends  Stoic (politically based)  Soul is judged  Bad people eternally punished  Good blended into the heavenly aether, losing your individual identity which is what you want  Most souls purified by fire, have their memory wiped and returned to earth as a human again  Epicurean  Your soul is made up of a material and disintegrates along with your body  Nothing after death, your soul just dissolves like the molecules of your body CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 5, Lecture #11, 19 September 2016 Athena  Goddess of wisdom, battle strategy, weaving, called “owl-eyed goddess,” associated with an owl  Born from Metis + Zeus’ head ache  Zeus ate Metis while she was pregnant b/c Metis was goddess of wisdom and Zeus didn’t want to be usurped by her child. But then Zeus gets a headache and calls Hephaestus to come and chop his head open to get rid of it, and Athena falls out fully grown in full armor  Athens, Greece named after her  Demonstrates her prominence  Parthenos = virgin goddess  Gave birth when Hephaestus tried to rape her and failed, but his semen touched her leg  Erichthonius born from the ground, has a snake body to show from the earth  Erichthonius = from the earth, chthonic  Name literally means “super earth guy”  1 king of Athens  Being Athena’s son, explains why she care about humans as her “adopted children”  Contest between Poseidon and Athena  Trying to win favor with humans  Poseidon stabs ground with trident  spring of salt water comes out  Salt water is useless to humans  Athena stabs ground with trident  olive tree comes out  Can be used for olive oil, which is used in food, for cleaning, for bathing, etc.  Athena’s win  Reflects humans preference of land battles over water (although historically, the Athenians’ navy was much stronger than their army) and their claimed intellectuality/wisdom  Athena and Arachne story:  Skilled weaver Arachne too proud of herself; Athena challenged her to a weaving contest, lost, got mad, hit her; Arachne tried to hang herself in shame but Athena stopped her and turned her into a spider instead  Origin story/etiology for spider’s webs  MORAL: Don’t be better than the gods, and even the goddess of wisdom isn’t immune to childishness  Parthenon – Athena’s temple  In Athens, derived from Parthenos (virgin goddess Athena)  Strategic acropolis {temple} placement at top of a hill, good for battles and defense  Statue of Athena present in armor with Nike (goddess of victory) in her hand and with snakes on shield (in tribute to Erichthonius)  Statues of gods/goddesses believed to be the actual physical god/goddess, so chained to the ground by their ankles to prevent them from moving around  Temple of god/goddess = their home, so only priests/priestess allowed inside and sacrifices were made outside  Made of chryselephantine (chrys = gold, elephantine = ivory) CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 5, Lecture #12, 21 September 2016 Apollo  God of light, medical skills, archery, prophecy, and technical music, also called “Phoebus,” “Far-Shooter”  Born from Leto and Zeus; Leto’s parents Coeus (Titan of revolution of the universe) and Phoebe (Titan of light)  Hera jealous of Zeus and punishes Leto by telling all the nymphs and dryads to not give her a place on earth to give birth, but Leto finds island of Delos so newly formed, it’s not connected to the earth yet so Hera’s ban doesn’t apply and there are no nymphs/dryads associated with it  Apollo’s twin sister: Artemis  Delos becomes Apollo’s holy island/winter home  Helios and Apollo; Helios = Titan god of sun, Apollo = light  Apollo consumed Helios though so he’s now associated with both  Example of a god taking control of something already in existence (~Poseidon and the sea)  Light associated with knowledge (~lightbulb going off)  Apollo also god of prophecy  Oracles/sibyls = Apollo’s priestess  The one at Delphi is most important b/c of the Omphalos  Get possessed by him and deliver his prophecies via rambling, knowledge from the sun  A priest comes to record what she says  Often very vague, so can be misinterpreted but is always “right”  They sit on a tripod in the basement of the temple over a crack that is an entrance to Tartarus; prevents knowledge from the earth from coming up (sky over earth)  During winter months, Apollo takes the tripod goes back home to Delos so the sibyls can’t prophesize anymore  Story of a Roman general demanding a prophecy from a sibyl but she can’t b/c Apollo isn’t there to give one through her, so he locks her up and she goes mad and dies when she’s possessed by a chthonic deity b/c the tripod isn’t there to block the opening  “Gnothi seauton” = “know yourself,” don’t be arrogant, be humble  Artificial/technical music vs. natural music  Technical = learned skills (i.e. piano, singing, lyre); natural = what comes naturally (i.e. panpipes)  Contest between Apollo’s lyre and Pan’s (a satyr) panpipes  Apollo won  Technical over natural  Medicine, another technical skill  Apollo is father of medicine, and Apollo’s son Asclepius is the Practitioner  Asclepius associated with snake winding around a staff  has come to represent medical (i.e. ambulances have the symbol)  Different from Hermes’ caduceus, which is often mistaken for medicine symbol  Can use abilities to heal but also spreads disease/plague using his bow and arrow (motif of where there is x, there is also anti-x)  Apollo and Daphne story:  After slaying the Python (sky over earth) with his bow and arrow, Apollo sees Eros and chides him as a child playing with a bow; as revenge, Eros shoots Apollo and Daphne with his arrows, making Apollo fall in love with her and Daphne fall in disgust for him (x, anti-x motif again); Apollo pursues her and when she can’t run anymore, Daphne calls out to her river dad/all the gods and goddess to help her and she’s turned into a laurel tree  Apollo makes the laurel his sacred tree  If you cut down any other tree, you’d be pissing off one dryad, but if you cut down a laurel tree, you’re pissing off Apollo Factoids  There are sibyls present in the art in the Sistine Chapel  Reflects their importance even after the advent of Christianity  Delphi is a major city both politically and religiously  Many banks and treasuries in and around it for temples CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 5, Lecture #13, 23 September 2016 Hermes  God of thieves/robbers, rocks/stones, messengers, travelers, merchants, boundaries, oratory  Name translates to “of the stone”  Cairns (piles of stones) used to mark pathways to towns  god of rocks/stones  Highway thieves would hide behind tall cairns to rob travelers  god of thieves/robbers  Messengers often the only ones traveling between towns because nature is dangerous  god of messengers and also travelers  Messengers entering towns  god of entering spaces/crossing boundaries  Herms (stones with depictions of Hermes) used to mark boundaries between cities, around holy acropolis’, and outside homes  Oratory the main method of delivering messages  god of oratory  Longer name = Hermes Psychopompos  Psycho = “soul,” pompos = “center”  Hermes has the ability to cross from the sky to earth and to the underworld to an extent  The only immortal god who is able to do so  But he can’t cross into death; he delivers souls to Tartarus but can only go as far as Charon  In some murals, Hermes would be depicted just standing in the background simply to indicate that there’s a boundary or there’s a boundary being crossed Factoids  Ancient Greeks were very amused by phalluses  They would put them on herms, and also when depicting Hermes in art, would have multiple phalluses sticking out of his head  In case you doubt me, here’s a statue of Hermes and a herm  Hekate (goddess of witchcraft, magic, and ghosts) has a similar ability as Hermes in being able to cross boundaries  She grants permission to cross  Works hand in hand with Hermes CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 6, Lecture #14, 26 September 2016 Artemis  Goddess of childbirth, the moon, hunting, wild animals, disease (particularly among young women), maiden song and dance, harbors  Several parallels with twin brother Apollo  Helped mother Leto give birth to Apollo; first act after being born  goddess of childbirth  Alternate names  “Diana” – Roman name  “Phoebe” – tradition of grandmother’s name being passed on  “Agrotera” – huntress  “Potria Theron” – mistress of animals  “Artemis Phosphoros” – light bringer  Similar to Hekate’s torches  Artemis’ six wishes to Zeus 1) Remain a virgin 2) Be given a bow and arrow like her brother Apollo 3) Be given the mountains as her domain 4) Not have to dress like a lady; be allowed to wear short skirts (most women had to wear long dresses) 5) Be a light bringer; with the moon 6) Be given 60 nymph attendants  In charge of the female transition from girlhood to womanhood  Parthenon (virgin) to Gune (woman)  Ephesian Artemis, Kybele, at Ephesus  From about 10 century BC, syncretism of Kybele and Artemis  Selene (Titan goddess of the moon, childbirth, and the lunar cycle) combined with Artemis  Selene also the goddess of childbirth because time was measured based off the lunar cycle in months which lent itself to how it takes nine months for a child to be born  Similar to Helios and Apollo; took over something already in existence  Relationship with Apollo  Brother and sister, but initially portrayed as husband and wife  Artemis known for chastity, Apollo not so much  Story of Iphigenia  King Agamemnon offended Artemis by killing a deer in her sacred space, so she prevented his ships from leaving his harbor and going to war  To try to appease her, king tries to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia but before she dies, Artemis saves her by tuning her into a deer and adopting the deer as her symbol and occasional companion  Example of wrath vs. mercy demonstrated by the gods  Story of Acteon  While hunting in the woods after finishing his work, mortal Acteon happened upon Artemis taking a bath in a lake surrounded by her nymph attendants  Acteon tries to run, but as punishment for seeing her naked and to defend her chastity, Artemis turns him into a deer; then he comes across his friends and his hunting dogs who violently rip him apart  Moral: Acteon didn’t really do anything wrong, but he was still punished for interacting with Artemis  Story of Callisto  Nymph follower of Artemis; Zeus wanted to have sex with her, so he took the form of Artemis and seduced her  Callisto got pregnant and blamed Artemis who gets mad and turns her into a bear  Alternate version of the story: Hera finds out Callisto slept with Zeus and turns her into a bear  But Callisto’s child Argus remains human and ends up hunting down his mother and killing her  Zeus takes pity on her and makes her a constellation  Common themes with Artemis myths:  Virginity, chastity, girlhood, wild places, dangers of challenging the gods Factoids  Before going off to war, kings would usually invoke the name of Artemis at her temple  The priestess at Artemis’ home in Brauron are she-bears “arktoi” CC 303, Dr. James Patterson, Week 6, Lecture #15, 28 September 2016 Pan and the Countryside  Pan (god of the countryside)  Is a satyr, similar to the king over the other satyrs  From rustic, mountainous Arcadia where lots of shepherds live, who contributed to the origin of Pan  Name translates to “all”  Because all the gods loved him (although this was unlikely)  Because while Odysseus was away on his epic quest, there was a giant orgy in his palace and Pan was the offspring from all of them  Most likely because he’s a god associated with pasturing animals  Parents: Hermes as the main father + nymphs and dryads  Many mothers reflects that every countryside has a Pan/there are multiple Pans  Also, imposition of Hermes the Olympian on many chthonic female deities  “Panic” derived from his name because shepherds would fear hearing his voice or his panpipes  He was a large reason why you had to be cautious in the countryside  Country vs. civilization, country vs. city (at the human level)  Rural/rustic vs. cities, agriculture, culture, education  Animalistic sex and drinking vs. moderation  Pan’s sexual urges included but were not limited to females, males, and animals  Even more reason to be careful in the countryside  Countrymen enjoy his revelry but still need to be careful by worshipping and praying to him  Despite his father being an Olympian, Pan was considered more of an earth god (half goat, half man)  Also one of the few gods who is able to die  Died when Jesus was crucified according to early Christians  Believed to originally be a pre-Indo-European god who was later connected to Hermes through myth  Story of Syrinx  “synrinx”  syringe because both are hollow tubes  A nymph followed of Artemis, believed in chastity and was a virgin  Pan falls in love with her and pursues her but she runs and asks other nymphs for their help, so they turn her into reeds  Since Pan can’t tell which reed Syrinx is, he strings 8 or 9 of them together and makes a panpipe, creating natural music (just pluck reeds from nature and blow)  Story of Echo (alternate from one with Narcissus)  Mortal Echo was good at singing and playing music; Pan was intrigued by her talent and tried to sex her, but she refused him of course  So Pan drives all the shepherds into a frenzy, and they find Echo, rip her apart, and scatter her limbs across the countryside  Gaia comes to help and resurrects Echo as just a ubiquitous voice everywhere, so it drives Pan crazy trying to find her, but he can’t because she no longer has a physical body  Echo forever taunts him by repeating the last words of whatever he says Factoid  The image of a satyr with goat legs and a human top with horns and a goatee is believed to be the inspiration for Christian devil imagery  Although modern day Christians know that Satan actually possesses the form of an angel, reflects the inspiration of cultures on each other


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