Contraception (Chapter 6)
Contraception (Chapter 6) HSC 3110
University of Central Florida
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaby on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 3110 at University of Central Florida taught by Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Exam 2: Chapter 48 Chapter 6 • Contraceptives and their definitions: • birth control: managing fertility and preventing unwanted pregnancy • Conception: the fusion of an ovum and sperm that created a zygote (fertilized egg) *dumbed down definition: when you have sex with a guy* • Contraception: preventing conception by blocking the female’s egg from uniting with the male’s sperm, thereby preventing pregnancy • is more predictable and effective today than in the past • play a role in prevention against STD • Principles: • Types: • barrier physically blocking sperm from the egg (condoms) • hormonal oral contraceptives (birth control), alter the biochemistry of the women’s body, preventing ovulation and producing changes that make it more difficult for the sperm to reach the egg if ovulation occurs • natural methods based not he fact that the egg and the sperm have to be present at the same time for fertilization to occur; intercourse is avoided around the time of ovulation • surgical methods permanently prevent the union of the sperm and egg (female and male sterilization) • Effectiveness • contraceptive failure rate percentage of women using a particular contraceptive method who experience an unintended pregnancy in the first year of use • continuation rate percentage of people who continue to use a particular contraceptive after a specified period of time • Oral Contraceptives: The Pill • reversible • estrogen and progesterone taken orally • mimics hormonal activity of corpus luteum (secrets high levels of progesterone and estrogen to suppress ovulation) • advantages: fairly effective in preventing pregnancy; women who do get pregnant become so because they didn’t take the pills as directed • disadvantages: remembering to take the pill everyday; doesn’t protect against STIs • effectiveness: failure rate as low as 0.3% • Contractive skin patch • thin, 13/4 inch square patch • releases estrogen and progestin slowly into the bloodstream • prevention the same way as oral contraceptives • wear for one week, replaced the same day for 3 weeks, no patch on the fourth week • advantages: similar to that of the pill • disadvantages: doesn’t protect against STIs; risk of blood clots (risk higher with the patch than with the pill) • effectiveness: very low the first year of use (0.3%) • Vaginal Contraceptive Ring • NuvaRing • resembles the rim of a diaphragm and is molded with progestin and estrogen • two inch ring slowly releases the hormones • prevents pregnancy the same way as the pill • during fourth week, remove the ring and use a new ring after the fourth week • advantages: one month of protection without daily action required; similar advantages to the pill; decreased anemia and the ability to control your cycle • disadvantages: no protection against STIs; vaginal discharge, vaginitis and vaginal irritation • effectiveness: perfect use failure rate is around 0.3%; the sing’s typical use failure rate is similar to the pill’s 9% • Contraceptive implants • Implanon (approved in 2006 for use in US) • effective for three years • simple implant • hormonal method • inhibits ovulation and affects the development of the uterine lining • Effectiveness THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHOD!!!!!!! • Injectable Contraceptives • DepoProvera • hormonal treatment • injectable progestin usually given every 12 weeks • can cause a reduction in bone density • may take 12 months before cycle returns • Intrauterine Devices (IUDS) • T380A (ParaGard) up to 10 years of protection • copper • Levonorgestral (Mirena) up to 5 years of protection • releases small amounts of progestin • unknown how it prevents pregnancy • Male Condoms • thin sheaths almost all latex in the US • protects against STDs • use with spermicide for effectiveness • Female Condom • “FC2” • synthetic, nonlatex rubber sheath with two flexible rings • can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex • Diaphragm with Spermicidal Jelly/Cream • domeshaped cup of latex or silicone stretched over a collapsible metal ring • custom fit by your doctor (available by prescription) • following intercourse the diaphragm must be left in place for at least 6 hours • TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) is a major disadvantage • Lea’s Shield • one size fits all diaphragm like device • available by prescription • can be used by women allergic to latex • FEMCAP • small silicone cap that fits snugly over cervix • held in place by suction • must be fitted by a doctor • spermicide must be placed in the cup and on brim • must be replaced annually • Contraceptive Sponge • Round, absorbent device about two inches in diameter that fits over cervix • resaturated with the same spermicide that is used in contraceptive creams and foams • Major disadvantage is Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) • Vaginal Spermicides • Foams, creams, jellies • spermicidal suppository • vaginal contraceptive film (vcf) • must be placed near the cervical entrance no more than 60 minutes before intercourse • must wait 6 hours post if user want to douche • abstinence the choice not to engage in sex • fertility awareness based methods: • abstain rom intercourse during fertile phase of menstrual cycle • methods to know when fertility is: • calendar • temperature • mucus • Withdrawal penis is removed from vagina before ejaculation • Emergency Contraception • Plan B, Plan B onestep, Next Choice (OTC) • MOST EFFECTIVE IF TAKEN WITHIN 12 HOURS AFTER INTERCOURSE • for 17 and older • side effects: • nausea • stomach pain • headaches • dizziness • breast tenderness • Male Sterilization: Vasectomy • Permanent • requires severing of the vas deferens • can return to work after two days • cost $4001,000 • Female Sterilization • Tubal sterilization is most commonly performed by laparoscopy • Essure System • 2002 • Tiny, springlike, metallic implants causing scarring that blocks fallopian tubes • hysterectomy • removal of uterus • reversibility • complication rate: 611%
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