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Cellular Respiration

by: Sashauna Rhoden

Cellular Respiration kine 2011

Marketplace > York University > Health Sciences > kine 2011 > Cellular Respiration
Sashauna Rhoden

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all the stages of cellular respiration, there end products, and explanation on what is going on in each stages
Human physiology
dr. oliver
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sashauna Rhoden on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to kine 2011 at York University taught by dr. oliver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human physiology in Health Sciences at York University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
CELLULAR METABOLISM: ATP: • Source of energy for the body is found in the chemical energy stored in Carbon bonds from ingested foods. • Which is then converted/stored into usable energy in the form of ATP: Adenosine TriPhosphate • Anytime the cell needs energy it uses ATP: maintaining structure, function and growth. • When you need energy the ATP is broken down into ADP( diphosphate), We get energy from food, and a Phosphate group is added back onto the ADP making ATP again. Thus starting the cycle again • ATP is produced in the cell by: 1. Creatine Phosphate(CP) 2. Anaerobic glycolysis 3. Aerobic metabolism(most effecient) • Top ATP producing cycles: 4. Glycolysis(anaerobic/aerobic) 5. Pyruvate decarboxylation 6. Tricarboxylic acid cycle/Crebs cycle Electron transport chain 7. CREATINE PHOSPHATE/SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION. • CP is source of energy during muscle contractile activity • Due to it containing high energy phosphate bonds. • Due to CP being the source of energy for the muscle ATP levels are low in this location. • This is why substrate phosphorylation of ADP using Creatine Phosphate is needed, when the muscle requires energy to contract/activities. • CP is stored in the Cytosol. • Reaction is catalyzed by Creatine Kinase: It is reversible. • Reaction itself: Muscle contraction 2. Phosphate bond between Creatine and Phosphate is broken 3. Energy is released from the broken bond.(Hydrolysis) 4. Kinase then donates the Phosphate to ADP. 5. ATP is then formed, turning CP to just Creatine. During Rest, CP concentration is then build back up, and is 5X more then ATP. • • ATP levels usually remain constant because it is the Creatine phosphate that we need. STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Glycolysis: Anaerobic • There are 10 steps to this process. • Cycle Location: Cytosol 1. Glucose(6 carbons molecule) enters cycle 2. Glucose is broken down into 2 Pyruvate( 3 carbon molecule) 3. Some energy from the broken bonds is used to make ATP 4. 2 ATP is made per glucose molecule. • Most of the energy is trapped in the pyruvate bonds not glucose. • McArdle diseases: has absence of phosphorylase, the enzyme that breaks down glucose, so the person with this cannot carry out glycolysis. End products: 2 Pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH CITRIC ACID CYCLE/PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLATION • Decarboxylation: pyruvate enters mitochondria • carbon is taken from pyruvate • creating CO2 which is expelled cardiorespiratory • Leaving a product of Acetyl CoA(2carbon molecule) to enter Citric Cycle • Cycle: 8 separate reactions, Aerobic Location: Mitochondria matrix 1. Acetyl CoA enters and binds to Oxaloacetic acid( 4 carbon molecule) 2. Citric acid is formed(6carbon molecule), rearranged to be iso-citric acid(6C). 3. 2 carbons is removed from iso-citric acid, turning it back into Oxaloactate(4C). 4. The 2 carbons are converted into 2 molecules of CO2 5. The 2 CO2 including the one from decarboxylation leaves the mitochondria matrix and cell via blood. Entitle 3 CO2 leaves. 6. Hydrogen atoms are removed 4X, and enter the ETC 7. NAD+ and FAD+ pick up the Hydrogens becoming NADH AND FADH2 8. One ATP is indirectly produced by the processing of ACoA that releases energy. 9. GDP becomes GTP due to the adding of Inorganic phosphate 10. The cycle happens again because their were 2 pyruvate from glycolysis created. • 1 Glucose —> 2 Acetyl CoA —> 2 turns of citric cycle —> 2 ATP • The main reason for this cycle was to get the NADH AND FADH2 to enter ETC • From 1 acetyl coA 3 NADH and one FADH • The O2 that is used in this cycle is not from breathing but the cycle itself. End products: 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Cycle: Aerobic Location: Inner Mitochondrial matrix cristae 1. NADH and FADH2 enter 2. Electrons are extracted from hydrogen in FADH2 and NADH 3. As the electron move through the ETC they release energy 4. The energy is then used to transport H+ ions from matrix into the inter membrane space at complexes I, III, and IV 5. As result H+ is more concentrated in the inter membrane space than in the matrix. 6. H+ gradient then provides enough energy, so ATP synthesis can happen by ATP synthase. this step is called chemiosmosis 7. ATP synthase converts ADP to ATP. 8. 32 ATP is created in this cycle from the 1 Glucose in the beginning of glycolysis. • Complex 1: accepts its electrons from NADH • Complex 2: accepts its electron from FADH2 From 1 NADH we can generate 2-3 ATP(on average2.5 ATP) sometimes there is a • cost to generate ATP. Which is most likely from the one coming from the cytosol • 1 FAH2 can generate 1-2 ATP( on average 1.5 ATP) • FADH cannot go to the first complex End products: 32 ATP ALLATP GENERATE IN TOTAL= 36


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