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Life Science 1 Class Notes

by: Daniel Ochs

Life Science 1 Class Notes Life Science 1

Daniel Ochs
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Covers First 4 lectures
Life Science 1: Evolution, Ecology, and Biodiversity
Dr. Lipman
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Ochs on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life Science 1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Lipman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Life Science 1: Evolution, Ecology, and Biodiversity in Biology at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Friday, September 23, 2016 Zero Week Introduction - Evolution: a change in characteristics of a population over time • Species are related by common ancestry • Descent with modification • Process of life that gives us Biodiversity - Biodiversity: - Organism: a living entity mad cup of one or more cells (5 characteristics) • Cells: all organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells • Replication • Evolution • (Genetic) Information • Energy - Theory: An explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observations supported by a wide body of evidence - Ecology: scientific study of home/environment 1 Monday, September 26, 2016 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Week 1- Lecture 2 Scientific Method - Science: goal is to acquire knowledge and describe the world • Evidence based • Logic based • Consistent • Repeatable • Conservative - Kinds of science • Observational • Experimental - Scientific Process • Observations - Be curious/ask questions • Hypothesis: proposed explanation for something observed - Testable statement to explain a phenomenon or a set of observations - Disprove null hypothesis (opposite of test) to prove hypothesis - 95+% to reject null hypothesis • Experiments: scientific tool to test predictions made in hypothesis - Controlled (changing one variable) to show causation - Manipulative experiment - “Natural” experiment • Theory - Analyze and interpret data - Scientific Reporting 1 Monday, September 26, 2016 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 • Scientific Journals • Peer Review • Scientific citation - Scientific Error • Science try to minimize error and be objective • Humans/experiments are not perfect so measurements are approximations - Quality Control • Control • Sample Size • Repetitions - Scientific Theory • Can never be absolutely proven • Supported theories/hypotheses have a very high probability of being true - Scientific Uncertainty • There is always possibility of new future evidence • Knowledge is aways evolving - Life Processes Information • Chromosome: genetic material consisting of DNA - Double helix of varying sequences of four different kinds of building blocks • A - T & C - G • DNA codes for RNA, which codes for proteins • RNA molecules carry out specialized functions in cells - Determine what building blocks to use to make a protein • ATP - Tree of Life: a family tree of organisms • Phylogeny: organisms genealogical relationships 2 Monday, September 26, 2016 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 • Phylogenetic tree: a diagram that depicts evolutionary history - BioSkill 3: Interpreting Standard Error Bars and Using Statistical Tests • Standard error of the mean is a quantity that indicates the uncertainty in a calculated mean - SEM = Standard Deviation / Square root (Sample Size) • Statistical Tests - Chi-square tests: used to compare observed data with data you would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis - T-test: used to determine if there is a significant difference between the mean values off two groups - Analysis of variance (ANOVA): compares the means of two or more sets of datas by calculating how widely individuals in each data set vary - Regression and correlation: analyses are done when a researcher wants to know whether there is a relationship or correlation between two variables and the slope • Interpreting P Values and Statistical Significance - Specify null hypothesis, which is that reactant concentration has no effect on reaction rate - Calculate a test statistic - Determine the probability of getting by chance a test statistic as large as the one calculated - BioSkill 16: Reading and Citing the Primary Literature • Primary Literature: written work by researchers/experts who did the work 3 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Friday, September 30, 2016 Week 1- Lecture 3 Evolution and Natural Selection - Population: group of individuals of same species living in the same area - Three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes (Plants and Animals) - Genetic variation: based on the copy of the allele for that gene - Environmental variation: due to differences in the environment - Descent with modification: species that lived in the past are the ancestors of the species existing today, and that species change through time - Evolution: species are not static but change through time • Species are related by common ancestry • Characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation - Natural Selection: explains how evolution occurs • Individuals within a population vary in characteristics that are heritable • In a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals survive or reproduce - Artificial Selection Intentional breeding of plants and animals by humans • • Select for positive traits and against negative traits - Speciation: natural selection causing populations of one species to diverge and form new species - Survival of the fittest: an individual’s ability to produce viable offspring • Darwin in Galapagos - Adaptation: a trait that increase the fitness of an individual in a particular environment - Darwin’s 4 Postulates • Variation exists among individuals in a population • Some traits are heritable 1 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Friday, September 30, 2016 • Survive and reproductive success is highly variable • Which individuals survive and produce the most offspring is not random - Darwin published in 1859: “On the Orgin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” • Showed descent with modification • Adaptation via natural selection: species are related by common ancestry - Evolution via Natural Selection Acts on Individuals. Changes the Population. • • Populations adapt to environmental conditions of that time • Individuals acclimate (no genetic change) - Microevolution: a change in the relative frequencies of alleles or genotypes in a gene pool over time Evolution and Natural Selection II - Reproduction is a key to survival of the fittest - The Evidence for Evolution • Fossils: any trace of an organism that lived in the past - Dating is done using radiometric methods • Evidence from the Past - Fossil Record • Environmental changes - Sediments that hold fossils are also indications of environmental change • Extinction - See evidence of this in the fossil record and in the present - Over 99% of all species that ever lived are extinct - Extinction is natural and assured 2 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Friday, September 30, 2016 - Darwin interpreted extinction as evidence that species are dynamic • Transitional forms- “Law of Succession” - Animals living in certain areas look like the fossils found in the same ares - Living species “succeed” fossil species in the same region - Vestigial Traits • Traits possessed by organisms, that are not adaptive Related species • - Similar species found in the same geography area - Homologies- structural, developmental, genetic - Analogy is when structures have a similar function, but do not share an ancestry, these are a result of convergent evolution - Artificial Selection • Breeding dogs - All dogs descent from wolves 3 Monday, October 3, 2016 Monday, October 3, 2016 LS Week 2- Lecture 5 Chapter 13? - Meiosis Promotes Genetic Variation • Individual fitness is related to the relative number of offspring from and individual in the population - The unit of evolution • Population: group of individuals in the same species in the same place at the same time - Gene pool: total collection of genes in a population at any one time - Microevolution: change in relative frequencies of alleles in a gene pool over time - Punnett Square • Mating before two individuals gives us the probability of the genotype of the offspring • Heterozygous v Homozygous • Dominant v Recessive - Hardy-Weinberg Principle • p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 • Assumptions - Random Mating - Natural Selection: increase in traits that enhance reproduction in generations • Sexual Selection - No genetic drift: random sampling from random population - No gene flow: random with respect to fitness of individuals - No mutation: source of genetic variation (microevolutionary change) 1


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