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Chapter 12 notes

by: Brenna Eisenberg

Chapter 12 notes PSY 313

Brenna Eisenberg
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About this Document

The correlational research strategy
Intro. To Research Methodology
B. Seymour
Class Notes
Psychology, Research Methodologies, research, textbook notes, Science, person variables, correlation




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Eisenberg on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 313 at Syracuse University taught by B. Seymour in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro. To Research Methodology in Psychology (PSYC) at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 12 notes Tuesday, October 4, 2018:26 PM The correlational research strategy • Goals- to examine and describe the associations & relationshipsbetween variables ○ Want to establish that a relationship exists and describe the natureof the relationship-- does not explain the relationship • Does not manipulate the variables • Data- at least 1 measurement for each variable, usually from the same person ○ Ex- intelligence score and creativity level • Researcher just measures the variables • Experimentalresearch- Demonstratea cause and effect relationship between 2 variables, involves the manipulationof variables. DIFFERENT from correlationalresearch • Typically look at pairs of scores • Numerical data: ○ Scores identified as X or Y ○ Can be presented in a table or scatter plot, which can show the characteristics of the relationship between the variables • Correlation/ correlation coefficient- measures and describes the relationship.Describes 3 things- ○ Direction of the relationship  Positive relationship- X and Y change in the same direction. Ex- the relationship between height and weight  Negative relationship- X and Y change in opposite directions. Ex- speed and accuracy. The line slopes down to the right on a scatter plot. ○ Form of the relationship  Linear relationship-the data plots tend to cluster around a straight line  Pearson correlation- used to measure linear relationships when variables are numerical scores from interval/ratio scales  Monotonic relationship- consistently one directional in either direction  Spearman correlation- measures monotonic relationships when both variables are ranks from an ordinal scale or have been transformed into ranks ○ Consistency/ strength of the relationship  Described by the value of the correlation coefficient, between-1 and +1. • Non-numericalscores form nominal scales. Ex- gender and success on a task ○ When one score is numerical and the other isnt, the non-numericaldata is used to organize the scores into separate groups. ○ When both are non-numerical,the data is organized into a matrix. The cells of the matrix contain the frequency of individualsfor that category. • Coefficient of determination-r the squared value of a correlation. Percentageof variability of one variable. • Significance of correlation- a correlation found in the data is very unlikely to be due to random variation • Applications: ○ Predictions. Can predict future behavior as well as being able to use knowledge of 1 variable to make predictionsabout the other.  There is usually one predictor variable and one criterion variable.  Regression- using one variable to predict another ○ Reliability, validity  Reliability- the consistency/stabilityof the measurement  Validity- the extent to which the procedure actually measures what it claims to. ○ Evaluating theories • Limitations- ○ Third variable problem- could be controlling the two variables, produces the observed relationship.  Ex- ice cream consumption and crime ○ Directionalityproblem- doesn’t say which variable is the cause and which is the effect ○ Does not assess causality • Strengths- ○ Naturalistic, nonintrusive ○ Describes the relationshipsbetween variables • Relationshipswith more than 2 variables ○ Multipleregression- one criterion variable can be explained by a set of predictor variables Chapter 12 notes Page 1 Chapter 12 notes Page 2


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