Popular in Intro. To Research Methodology
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Eisenberg on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 313 at Syracuse University taught by B. Seymour in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro. To Research Methodology in Psychology (PSYC) at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Lecture 2-4 Monday, September 12, 201611:34 AM LECTURE 2: Defining and measuring variables • Theory- an idea about how the world works based on empirical data. Explanation of how scientific laws fit together ○ Goal of science is to develop and test theories ○ Psychological theories- set of integrated statements that explain behavior. Describe, predict, and control/ manipulate behavior. ○ Describes how constructs are related • Construct- The concept(s) of interest. Not directly observable. Ex- stress, attention,love, memory, knowledge. • Hypothesis- specific idea about the relation between constructs that is derived from the theory. Ex- stress reduces concentration ○ To test hypothesis, constructs must be defined • Operational definition- specifies how each construct will be measured. Turns constructs into something measurable and observable. ○ Ex- measure heart rate in relation to stress ○ Details are important even when construct seems simple. • Types of research: ○ Descriptive- gives a snapshot of the world. Not concerned with relationships between variables, but a description of the variables themselves. Ex-how many people drive drunk on college campuses? ○ Correlational- how are two variables related. Ex- do people who sleep longer have better memory? • Correlational research- How are two variables related? ○ Do people who sleep better have better memory? ○ Has constructs and operational definitions. ○ Correlation doesn’t equal causation • Experimental research- establishes a cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. ○ Does sleeping longer lead to better memory? ○ Tests a hypothesis ○ Has constructs, operational definitions, IVs, and DVs. • Independent variable- what you manipulate. What goes into the experiment • Dependent variable- what you measure • Variables- measure attributes that vary. ○ Heart rate, height, reaction time Lecture 3: observational research • Observation- may be qualitative or quantitative ○ Typically descriptive research method ○ Observational study- watching and recording data about behavior ○ Quantitative- amount, number of things, frequency, numerical ○ Qualitative- type of things, description, themes • Data collection: ○ What- behavior categories. Identify every category of behavior before observation. List everything that qualifies as a member of each category, need clear operational definitions. ○ When Frequency method- count number of times you observe behavior in a fixed amount of time. Better for discrete variables Duration method- measure amount of time spent engaging in behavior. Better for continuous variables. Interval method- set time intervals and note if behavior is observed during that time. Yes or no. ○ How- Event sampling- observe behavior 1/ observe behavior 2 Individual sampling- all behaviors from person 1/ or from person 2 Time sampling- observe, record, observe, record Lecture 4 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 11:35 AM • Naturalistic observation- try not to disturb the subjects being observed. Hide, habituate. Not part of the experiment. ○ Jane Goodall- lived in Tanzania with chimps, observed their behaviors. Discovered things through pure observation, took careful notes. • Participant- "become one of them". Part of the experiment, participants don’t usually know. ○ Rosenhan and 7 sane people admitted to mental institutionsto see if the medical staff was accurate Qualitative data- other patients noticed that they were not crazy. Staff responded generally to specific question Quantitative data- days in the hospital Research methods Page 1 Quantitative data- days in the hospital • Contrived/ structured- construct situation so that you can measure relevant behaviors. Bandura's Bobo doll experiment ○ • Problems with observation: ○ Demand characteristics- people might do what the feel is expected of them based on clues from the researcher or design ○ Reactivity- modify natural behavior when they know they are being watched • Precaution to avoid these problems: ○ Choose appropriatemethod ○ Replicate study • Opinions and social pressure- Asch ○ Which line is the same length as the control line? ○ 7 researchers pretended to be participants. On some trials they all gave the same answer. Sometimes it was right and sometimes wrong. ○ Found that the participant was influenced by the opinions of others even when they were clearly wrong. • Experimenter expectancy effect- ○ Rosenhan found that some assistants that were told the rats were bred to learn mazes quickly found that the "smart" rats learned quicker than the people who were told the rats were bred to have difficulty. ○ In reality, all the rats were the same. ○ Avoiding this problem- Single blind study- experimenter does not know the hypothesis or the condition the participant is in Double blind study- neither experimenter nor participants knows the condition • Observation is subjective and you may miss something Research methods Page 2