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Session 2: New Spain New France

by: Elly Notetaker

Session 2: New Spain New France History 202

Elly Notetaker
Cal Poly

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About this Document

These notes cover the material presented during the first lecture about New Spain and New France colonies.
United states history since 1865
Gregory Domber
Class Notes
history, United, States, us
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elly Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gregory Domber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see United states history since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
HIST 201 Session 2 New Spain New France French and Spanish Empires in North America Setting Beginnings  Big History o Starts with the Big Bang, Pangaea, geographic beginnings  Environmental History o Ex: Gold on CA  Political History o Ex: Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, etc  Global / International History o Place the US in a broader context o Formation of colonies o Global connections that lead to the creation of the United States New Spain  Spanish first settled on the island of Hispaniola (present day Haiti or Dominican Republic)  Europeans wanted to break away from Muslim empire and trade with Africa and other countries so they looked across the sea  Expeditions initially went down the coast of African and around Cape Horn  First colonized small African islands  Then across the Atlantic  Columbus first attempt to colonize Disease  Europe’s first import because originally lived so close to animals (pigs!)  Europeans were naturally immune but natives were not  Biological warfare  Natives weak and forced to work underfed  Exploration before colonization – possibility for disease to spread  1490: 50-100 million natives, 200 years later: only 10% remain Spanish Trips to the Interior  Went looking for more slaves  Heard stories of wealthy cities and focused on getting gold  Conquistadors: led by a royal crown and given soldiers to explore areas and crown gets 20% of riches and claims the land  Hernan Cortez: led group into Mexico and found Tenochtitlan, capital city, took it and rebuilt it into Mexico City  Hernando de Seto – left from Cuba into Florida into Mississippian culture, big but not obvious riches, Soto dies and team leaves  Francisco Cornodo – Finds Puebl0o Indians, no gold, loses interest  Expanded range of Mexican Empire  Mined tons of gold and silver  Start in central Mexico then to Florida then in Southeast  Mexican most successful o Central Mexico: new technology, brutal o Divide and conquer o Very brutal o Diplomacy o Technological advantage: steel and horses o Disease helped by weakening native populations o Took advantage of local rivalries Bureaucracy of Spanish Empire  Begin to run the areas not conquer  Vice Royalty of Peru and Mexico / Viceroy and Council  Audencia: underneath victory – trials, laws, etc  Estates and mines ran by slaves  Spanish colonists: mostly single men o Mestizos: Spanish-Indian offspring, outnumber Indians o Mostly rape  Racial hierarchy: castes o Bottom: pure African/Indian o Mixed o Pure Spanish – top – greater privileges  Spanish moved to economic model of “saving souls” and making taxpayers  Religious motives grew  Pedro Menendez set up St. Augustine in Northeast Florida o Franciscans set up missionaries o 40 friars ministered and converted o Missionaries brought gifts to natives o Indians: access to trade, “saved” from diseases through new religion o Priests also showed brutality  Spanish crown wanted taxpayers  Convert to provide labor and food New Mexico  Capital city in Santa Fe  Franciscans set up missions  Advantage to Pueblos – opens up trade, animals brought in, wool, steel  Protection from rival groups like the Apache  But Spanish tried to Hispanize the local population o Demanded sex, cultural warfare, taught language, monogamy, religious conversion  Colonial areas on the periphery remained poor Positive Outcomes for Indians: livestock, steel, goods, trade, protection, and intellectual exchange Negative Outcomes for Indians: Disease/death, forced religion / suppression, rape, sexual violence, slavery New France  Very different approach  First success in Canada / Quebec Early Contacts  Cod fishing – Europeans would come to North America to fish and then return to America  Start trading furs and working together o Indians took their steel (in the form of kettles) giving them advantage among other tribes o Victorious tribes took their kids to make up for disease loss French at Quebec  Decided to make permanent settlements north to not attract Spanish attention  No voting assembly o Instead military governor o Civil administration o Bishop  Mostly male o French married Huron Indians to tap into their networks  Very small population – needed Indians so became apart of them  Mixed kids were intermediaries both languages  Mutual dependence  First to introduce natives to muskets o Guns became very coveted o Competing groups became more powerful o Need to keep good relations with Europeans o Iroquois get from Dutch, Hurons with French  Attempt to bring in religion o Jesuitst look to save Indian souls o Hybrid spirituality, mix the religions and build off of traditions o Compromise between French and Indian became known as “middle ground” o Balance of power between French and Indians


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