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PSYCH Chapter 3 Notes- 5 Senses

by: Kayra Reyes

PSYCH Chapter 3 Notes- 5 Senses PSYC 1300

Marketplace > University of Houston > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1300 > PSYCH Chapter 3 Notes 5 Senses
Kayra Reyes

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 3 of “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Includes all vocab in the chapter, examples, and key notes from t...
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Herb W Agan
Class Notes
sight, smell, touch, Sound, senses, Psychology, perception, sensation
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayra Reyes on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1300 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb W Agan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Houston.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 3 from “Mastering the World of Psychology” by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd, 5th edition Pg 76. THE PROCESS OF SENSATION Sensation: process by which the brain picks up signals from our 5 senses and sends them to our brain Perception: process by which the brain organizes and interprets information received Absolute Threshold: “the minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time”  fine line between not sensing and barely sensing something Difference Threshold: the slight increase or decrease that is needed to make a Just Noticeable Difference (JND) -Ernest Weber found that it’s not how much of a weight change there is but the percentage change that is made that allows one to feel the difference Weber’s Law: the weight that we carry must have a 2% change in order for us to notice it Law typically involves a “regular” person who isn’t too strong or too weak and would sense differences similarly to most individuals Pg 78. TRANSDUCTION AND ADAPTATION Sensory Receptors: specialized cells that detect and respond to one type of sensory stimulus/one type of sense Transduction: “The process through which sensory receptors convert the sensory stimulation into neural impulses” Sensory Adaptation: sensory receptors get used to constant, unchanging levels of stimuli over time Ex: if you were trapped in a sewer and needed to get out, your senses would get used to and learn to ignore the bad smells so you can focus on finding a way out Pg 79. VISION Visible Spectrum: “The narrow band of light waves that are visible to the human eye” Wavelength: A measure of the distance from the peak of a light wave to the peak of the next The Eye Cornea: protective layer that covers the front of the eye and bends light rays inward through the pupil Lens: transparent disk-shaped structure behind the iris and the pupil that changes shape as it focuses on objects at varying distances Accommodation: The flattening and bulging action of the lens as it focuses images of objects on the retina, adjusts sight Retina: “layer of tissue that is located on the inner surface of the eyeball and contains the sensory receptors for vision” Rods: slender cylinder-shaped light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina Cones: “The light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that enable humans to see color and fine detail in adequate light but do not function in very dim light” Pg 81. Fovea: area at center of the retina that provides clear vision, has largest concentration of cones Vision and the Brain Blind Spot: point in each retina where there are no rods or cones Optic Nerve: nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain Primary Visual Cortex: part of the brain in which visual information is processed Feature Detectors: “Neurons in the brain that respond only to specific visual patterns (for example, to lines or angles)” COLOR VISION Pg 83. Sensing Colors Hue: the specific color perceived like red or blue Saturation: The purity of a color and amount of light mixed in it Brightness: The intensity of light THEORIES OF VISION Trichromatic Theory: Thomas Young, suggests that three types of cones in the retina each respond to one of three colors—blue, green, or red. Opponent-Process Theory: Ewald Hering, the theory of color vision suggesting that three kinds of cells respond by increasing or decreasing their rate of firing when different colors are present. Afterimage: A visual sensation that remains after a stimulus is withdrawn Ex: seeing a lot of light flashed on an object will make the object appear whiter even after the lights are turned off Color Blindness: The inability to distinguish certain colors from one another Pg 85. HEARING AND BALANCE Sound *Sound requires a medium like air or water, you can’t make noise in space Frequency: “The number of cycles completed by a sound wave in one second, determining the pitch of the sound; expressed in the unit called the hertz” Pitch: how high or low the sound is Pg 86. Amplitude: how loud a sound is, measured in unit called bel after Alexander Bell Decibel (dB): unit of measurement for the loudness of sounds instead of bel because bel is much too large Timbre: unique quality to a sound that makes it different from other sounds The Ear and Hearing Audition: The sensation and process of hearing. Outer Ear: The visible part of the ear Middle Ear: The part of the ear connecting the eardrum to the oval window and amplify sound waves Inner Ear: “The innermost part of the ear, (containing the cochlea, the vestibular sacs, and the semicircular canals)” Cochlea: “The fluid-filled, snail-shaped, bony chamber in the inner ear that contains the basilar membrane and its hair cells (the sound receptors)” Hair Cells: Sensory receptors for hearing, if damaged, lead to hearing loss Pg 89. Place Theory: Hermann von Helmholtz, theory of hearing that says each pitch a person hears is determined by the particular location along the basilar membrane of the cochlea that vibrates the most Frequency Theory: theory of hearing saying that hair cell receptors vibrate the same number of times per second as the sounds that reach them BALANCE AND MOVEMENT Kinesthetic Sense: sense providing information about the position and movement of body parts Vestibular Sense: The sense that provides information about the body’s orientation in space. Semicircular Canals: canals in the inner ear that sense the rotation of the head. SMELL TASTE AND TOUCH Smell Olfaction: The sense of smell Pg 91. Olfactory Epithelium: 10 million olfactory neurons, the receptors for smell Olfactory Bulbs: “Two matchstick-sized structures above the nasal cavities, where smell sensations first register in the brain” TASTE Pg 92. Gustation: The sense of taste Taste Buds: Structures along tongue papillae (bumps on tongue) that are composed of 60 to 100 receptor cells for taste TOUCH AND PAIN Touch *Max von Frey, two-point threshold, theory as to how far apart two points must be on one’s body before they are sensed as two different areas Tactile: Pertaining to the sense of touch Pain *Gate-Control Theory, Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall, says that the spinal cord acts like a gate, it can either block out or transmit the sense of pain to the brain, (also account for cognitive and emotional factors that influence pain) Endorphins: The body’s own natural painkillers Pg 95. INFLUENCES AND PERCEPTION Attention Attention: “The process of sorting through sensations and selecting some of them for further processing”, typically those that are most familiar Inattentional Blindness: when our paying attention to one thing causes us not to notice changes in another Ex: someone is paying attention to one customer, not realizing that another is sneaking candy into his pocket *Cocktail Party Phenomenon: E. C. Cherry, one pays more attention to conversations in which they hear their own name Cross-Modal Perception: A process whereby the brain integrates information from more than one sense at once PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Bottom-Up Processing: bits of previous data are combined until a complete perception is formed Pg 98. Top-Down Processing: previous experience and conceptual knowledge are used to recognize the whole idea and easily identify the simpler elements of that whole Perceptual Set: A set of expectations that may affect the actual outcome or its perception Pg 99. SOCIAL PECEPTION Mirror Neuron System (MNS): “A network of cells that the brain uses to interpret and produce motor actions and emotion-related behavior” PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION Gestalt: the whole form or pattern that a person perceives Basic Principles of Perceptual Organization: 1. Figure-Ground: one object that stand out from the background 2. Similarity: similar objects are perceived to belong to the same unit 3. Proximity: objects close in time and space are perceived as a same unit 4. Continuity: perceive items as a unit if they form a pattern 5. Closure: see figures with gaps as complete units Perceptual Constancy: “phenomenon that allows us to perceive objects as maintaining stable properties, such as size (size constancy), shape (shape constancy), and brightness (brightness constancy), despite differences in distance, viewing angle, and lighting” Depth Perception: The ability to see the world in 3D and to judge distances accurately Pg 102. Binocular Depth Cues: Depth cues that depend on both eyes working together Monocular Depth Cues: Depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone Perception Of Motion *James Gibson, important contributor to psychology of perception Pg 104. Auto Kinetic Illusion: staring at a still light for a few seconds will make it look like its moving Phi Phenomenon: Max Wertheimer, in a dark room, stationery lights are placed in the room and turned on and off in a pattern making it look the lights are moving UNUSUAL PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCES Puzzling Perceptions Ambiguous Figure: an image that is unfamiliar, like unconnected dots in a game Illusion: A false perception of an actual stimulus in the environment Pg 106. Subliminal Perception: the ability to notice stimulus that are very faint and almost undetectable, (like a secret message in the back track of a song) Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Gaining information through some means other than the known sensory channels Telepathy: awareness of another’s feeling without the use of the senses, like mind reading Clairvoyance: gaining information about things without using your senses, like guessing what a gift is without opening it Precognition: awareness of an event before it’s happened, like dreaming something and having it happen the next day Synesthesia: “The capacity for experiencing unusual sensations along with ordinary ones”


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