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Chapter 8

by: Gaby

Chapter 8 HSC 3110

University of Central Florida

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About this Document

Pregnancy and Childbirth (on exam 2) Exam 2 covers ch. 4-8
Medical Self Assesment
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gaby on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 3110 at University of Central Florida taught by Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Exam 2: Chapter 4­8 Chapter 8 Pregnancy and Child birth • Whether or not to become parents • how is your health? how old are you? • Emotional preparedness • your relationship to your partner/spouse • financial circumstances • two parent family will spend 8,500­23,00 per year per child depending on income • future plans • education • career • child care plans • Attitude and aptitude • religious and philosophical beliefs • Preconception Care • preexisting conditions • medications • prior pregnancies • age • tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use • infections • HIV • diet • DES (diethylstibestrol) • multiple births • genetic diseases  • Fertility • Conception: • involves egg (ovum) and sperm • each month a woman’s ovaries release an egg • takes 3­4 days for the egg to travel through fallopian tubes to uterus • if not fertilized egg will be disintegrated after 24 hours • typical ejaculate contains millions of sperm • sperm releases an enzyme to soften the egg’s exterior • egg and sperm each carry 23 chromosomes  • Twins • fraternal ­ born together but look different • identical ­ look the same • Infertility • inability to conceive after trying for a year or longer • female infertility • one of two causes • tubal blockage • failure to ovulate • anatomical abnormalities  • unexplained (smoking, age, chemicals) • blocked fallopian tubes are most common caused by PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)  • chlamydia or gonorrhea • endometriosis  • Male Infertility • accounts for 20% of infertile couples • 4 categories • hypothalamic   pituitary   disease   or   congenital disorders • testicular disease • disorder of sperm transport • unexplained • treatment • cause of infertility can be determined for about 85% of infertile couples • most cases treated with conventional medial therapies or surgery • assisted reproductive technology (ART)  • artificial intrauterine insemination • also given fertility drugs beforehand • In vitro fertilization • gamete intrafallopian transfer • zygote intrafallopian transfer • surrogate motherhood • emotional response to infertility • Pregnancy • 3 periods of about 3 months each (13 weeks) • tests • home pregnancy tests • human chorionic gonadotropin  • two weeks after fertilization • Early signs • missed period • slight bleeding • nausea (morning sickness) • breast tenderness • increased urination • sleepiness, emotional upset, fatigue • Changes in Woman’s Body • uterus size • first 3 months the uterus enlarges to about 3 times non pregnant size • 4 months, large enough to make abdomen protrude • 7­8 months pushes up into rib cage • Breasts change • stretch in ligaments and muscles • circulatory system holds higher blood volume • weight gain • Changes during later stages • increased needs placed on the mother • Braxton Hicks contractions • Lightening in the 9th month • emotional responses to pregnancy • Fetal Development • first trimester • blastocyst • inner cells divide into 3 layers • inner body parts, digestive and respiratory • muscle, bone, blood, kidneys, sex glands • skin, hair, nervous tissue • outmost cells becomes the placenta • embryo by 2nd week • major body structures formed between 2nd and 9th weeks • becomes fetus by 2nd month • second trimester • fetus grows to about 14 inches and 1.5 pounds • body systems are operating • third trimester • fetus gains protective fat layer in 8th month • respiratory and digestive organs develop • immunity supplied by mother’s blood • Fetal Abnormalities diagnosed • ultrasonography (ultrasound) • high frequency sound waves • amniocentesis • fluid removal from the uterus • chorionic villus sampling • removal of tiny section of chorionic villi • quadruple marker screen • maternal blood test • Fetal programming • conditions in the womb may influence the risk of adult diseases • Prenatal Care Importance • regular medical checkups • blood tests • prenatal nutrition • avoidance of drug and environmental hazards: • teratogens • first trimester congenital malformations • alcohol • tobacco • caffeine • drugs • STDs and other infections • prenatal activity and exercise • contributes to mental/physical wellness • 30 minutes a day of moderate exercise • kegel exercises • prenatal exercise classes • preparation for birth • Complications of Pregnancy and pregnancy loss • ectopic pregnancy • spontaneous abortion or miscarriage • stillbirth • preeclampsia/eclampsia • placenta previa • placental abruption • gestational diabetes • peterm labor  • labor induction • low birth weights (less than 5.5 pounds) • infant mortality • sudden infant death syndrome • coping with loss of child • Childbirth • assistance with delivery • physician • certified nurse­midwife • where is the baby going to be born • hospital • home • Labor and delivery • 3 stages: entire process 2­36 hours • first stage • average 13 hours for a first birth • cervix is completely dialed to 10 centimeters • contractions last 30 seconds each and occur every 15­20 minutes at first, more often later on • mucus plug may be expelled and amniotic sac may rapture (water breaking) • Transition • strong contraction may last 60­90 seconds and be 1­3 minutes apart • usually lasts 30­60 minutes • often the most difficult part of labor • second stage • baby slowly pushed into birth canal • squeezes through pelvis • head is usually delivered first (crowning) • umbilical cord is cut • third stage of labor • delivery of the placenta • stage typically lasts 5­30 minutes • Apgar score of the baby’s physical condition • heart rate • respiration • color • reflexes • muscle tone • score between 0­10 • Childbirth preparation courses • breathing and relaxation techniques • lamaze or Bradley techniques • Epidural • Narcotics • fentanyl or demerol • provide less pain relief than an epidural can provide  • Cesarean Deliveries • 2008­ 32.3% of babies born in the US were delivered by cesarean section • surgical removal of the baby • baby’s head too large • unusual position • mother’s health (serous health condition) • mother has diabetes • difficult labor • fetal distress • dangerous infection • 90%   of   cesarean   mothers   will   have   subsequent   deliveries   by cesarean • Postpartum Period • Stage of about 3 months following childbirth • time of critical family adjustment • after vaginal delivery, mother and child can leave hospital in 1­3 days • after cesarean section, 3­5 days • takes 6­8 weeks for the mother’s reproductive organs to return to rebirth condition • breastfeeding • colostrum secreted prior to lactation • lactation begins about 3 days post childbirth • recommended to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months • postpartum depression • attachment


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