PSY 270 Chapter 6 notes
PSY 270 Chapter 6 notes PSY 270
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 6: Cognitive Development in Infants To understand the concept, we need to start from the beginning with its created Jean Piaget Theorist focused on the stages of development and created the Cognitive Theory Questioned how knowledge was developed Focused on the development of the ways children perceive and represent the world mentally Concepts he used: Scheme Concepts about the world Can be represented in action patterns, mental structures, and knowledge Schemes adapt and change as the child grows and develops Assimilation The incorporations of new knowledge into existing schemes Accommodation Modifying schemes because of the new information or knowledge Cognitive Theory: 4 stages: Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years) Goals: Infants progress from performing their reflexes to performing intentional actions Mental representations are developed Holding pictures of objects/past events in their memory Solve problems through trial and error (symbolic play) Substages: 1) Simple Reflexes (birth – 1 month) Reflexive schemes modification of reflexes occur based on experiences ex) sucking on anything that touches their face to sucking for milk Not many purposeful actions are made, and if they are, it’s by chance not choice There are no connections between stimulation from different senses (infants cannot connect seeing a hand shake a rattle and hearing a rattle shake) 2) Primary Circular Reaction (1 – 4 months) “primary” the focus on infants body movements “circular” repetitive actions that affect the environment of the child Infants learn to control reflexes and develop schemes by repetitive habits of movement 3) Secondary Circular Reaction (4 – 8 months) “secondary” focus on the movements of objects An infant may accidentally move an object, and then intentionally repeat that action They use this repetition to observe how the movement impacts his/her environment If an object is out of sight, it does not exist 4) Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8 – 12 months) Infants exhibit intentional, goal oriented behaviors, meaning they can finally mentally represent goals Also copy actions they don’t know or have never done before 5) Tertiary Circular Reaction (12 18 months) Infants modify schemes when faced with new situations Piaget calls infants “miniature scientists” because they experiment with trial and error 6) Invention of New Means through Mental Combinations (18 24 months) Infants transition to symbolic thought They mentally explore through situations Ex) pulling objects into a crib at 18 months old Preoperational stage (2 years – 7 years) Concreate operational stage (7 years – 11 years) Formal operational stage (11 years +) Object Permanence: Recognizing that objects exist even when they cannot be seen Neonates don’t respond to objects out of their grasp 2 months: infants exhibit some surprise when a screen is lifted and the object of their desire is no longer there; they will look longer but not search for the object 6 months: infants perceive a mental representation of the object and look for dropped items or try to retrieve partially hidden objects 8 – 12 months: infants retrieve completely hidden objects Object permanence is said to exist in some form or another as early as 2.5 – 3.5 months of age An experiment tested infants less than 4 months old, using a 180 degree rotating screen. They included possible and impossible events (the screen couldn’t rotate the full 180 degrees because there’s a block in the way) Children look longer at the impossible event, suggesting they understand that the block still exists even though it’s covered by the screen Tested in nonhuman subjects: When tested, orangutans and chimpanzees perform as well as 2 year olds in object permanence Magpies also contain object permanence because they keep stores of food and have to remember where they stored the food. It develops right before the bird starts storing food for itself. Social Influences: Sociocultural Theory theory that focuses on teaching and learning in infants Zone of proximal development skilled partners introduce the intellectual tools of society to an infant Ex) reading picture books Scaffolding adults providing a learning situation to structure the rest of the child’s learning Children perform better in unskilled tasks when they are given maternal scaffolding Individual Differences in Cognitive Functioning Developmental quotient overall developmental score within certain categories called domains 4 domains of developmental quotient: 1) Motor skills 2) Language use 3) Adaptive behavior 4) Personal and social skills Many developmental and intellectual scales exist, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant development, 178 mental scale, 111 motor scale Behavior ratings scales are based on a researcher’s observations rather than tests Reasons for measuring: 1) Screen for deficits in learning 2) Catches the early signs of sensory/neurological problem 3) Various scales (Bazelton…. And Neonatal ICU…) “so if my baby scores really high on these scales, he/she is going to be a genius, right?” These scales do not predict the child’s later IQ score or grades in school because a child’s IQ fluctuates during this particular period in his/her age There are specific items tested that predict related skills at a later age The scales are the most useful because they identify developmental lags Visual Recognition Memory: The ability to discriminate previously seen objects from new objects based on habitually being shown the object This test is better for predicting IQ scores and language ability Rose et. al. (1992) 7 month olds were shown a picture of 2 identical faces, given a 20 second break, and then shown either the same two faces or one of the faces plus one new face. Children stared at the newer face longer Standard IQ test from ages 16 years Higher visual recognition memory scores correlate positively with higher IQ scores Language: A systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols that provides a basis for communication Components of language: 1) Phonology Basic sounds 2) Morphology Smallest meaningful unit of language Ex) suffixes, prefixes 3) Phoneme Smallest unit of sound Ex) consonants and vowels 4) Semantics Rules of the meaning of words Ex) denotation and connotation Prelinguistic vocalizations system of communication used before language develops Types of prelinguistic vocalizations: 1) Crying (you know what this is) 2) Cooing (2 months) Using a stream of vowel sounds 3) Babbling (69 months) Adding random consonants to random vowels 4) Echolalia (1012 months) Repeating vowel and consonant combinations 5) Intonation (about 12 months) Adding a rising and falling pattern to the vowel/consonant combinations; sounds like adult speech How do babies get from making sounds to making sentences? Infant speech also develops in stages: 1) Holophrases Single words to express complex meanings Ex) mama vs. you are mama 2) Telegraphic speech Using the minimum number of words to convey a meaning Ex) home Tuesday vs. I’ll be home Tuesday 3) Two word sentences (1825 months) Starts to demonstrate syntax, even if it’s wrong Ex) shoe mine vs. my shoe Meaning length of utterance average number of morphemes used in one sentence used to measure the progression of language development Receptive vocabulary total number of words that children understand the meaning of Expressive vocabulary total number of words that children have the ability to say Receptive vocabulary develops much faster than expressive vocabulary, meaning that children understand more words than they can actually say About 1113 months: 1 word Language is slow to develop at this time 1822 months: vocabulary increases from 50300+ words (EXPLOSION) Children name objects, which influences the explosion of vocabulary Stages of developing vocabulary: 1) General nominals Ex) dog, cat, horse, etc 2) Specific nominals Ex) mom, dad, pet’s name 3) Objects that move Ex) car 4) Action words Ex) byebye 5) Modifiers Ex) big, hot 6) Expressive Ex) uhoh, no Language Development styles: 1) Referential The use of language to label objects Using nominals, both general and specific 2) Expressive Using language to engage in social interactions Uses more pronouns As most things in psychology, there is a debate on whether children prefer a specific style of learning vs. whether the parents focus on naming objects or social interactions Overextensions using words in situations in which the meaning of the word is extended Ex) a child may refer to a dog as bowwow Extends to any familiar animal until the name/word for a specific animal or group is finally learned Infants can enhance their language growth when adults aid: 1) Use questions to engage the child 2) Relate adult speech to child utterances 3) Read/talk to the child 4) Use infant directed speech Motherese slow, highpitched, speech with pauses between ideas; uses simple sentences Babies prefer it Also known as “pet talk” Milestones of Language Development: 12 weeks: cooing 16 weeks: responds to human sounds and turns head to look for speaker 20 weeks: cooing morphs with consonants 6 months: babbling 8 months: repeats babblings and utterances have meaning/emotions 10 months: imitates sounds, not always correctly 12 months: begins to make words and understands requests 18 months: vocabulary explosion 24 months: two word sentences with effortful communication And of course, the everpresent nature vs. nurture debate that we all know and love Theories of Language DevelopmentNurture: 1) Imitation Children often learn from their parents They repeat what they hear But this doesn’t explain phrases that children utter but have never heard 2) Reinforcement Parents reinforce approximate forms of real words Extinction words that aren’t reinforced disappear from an infant’s vocabulary Shaping building of complex behavior through reinforcement of successive approximations of the target word Parents may reinforce the content uttered rather than the correct grammar of the utterance The same pattern of acquiring language exists across many learning environments Theories of Language DevelopmentNature: Children have an innate ability to learn languages 1) Psycholinguistic theory Children interact between their environment and innate factors in order to acquire language Language Acquisition Device: The innate tendency to learn a language Evidence: The language ability is universal There’s a regularity of a child’s early production of sounds Sequences of language development is invariant across languages This innate tendency primes a child’s nervous system to learn grammar Surface structure languages differ in vocabulary and grammar Deep structure the universal grammar that’s shared across languages Brain Structures used in Language: Located in the left hemisphere: 1) Broca’s Area 2) Wernicke’s Area Damage to these areas causes aphasia (impairment or inability to understand or produce language) Damage specifically to the Broca’s area causes slow, labored speech with simple sentences Damage specifically to the Wernicke’s area causes impaired comprehension of speech and expression of the individual’s thoughts Angular gyrus translates visual information into auditory sounds; used primarily when reading damage can result in reading difficulties or even dyslexia There is a sensitive period in learning development thanks to the brain’s plasticity at this age (18 monthspuberty) Experience with language alters the brain’s structure By adolescence, the brain reaches its adult level of differentiation and becomes less plastic Brain injuries severely affect the development of language Damage to the left hemisphere can impair or completely destroy an individual’s ability to speak Prepubescent children can actually recover from brain injuries with the ability to speak In an ideal experiment, researchers would rear a group of children under different conditions, such as severe isolation, but this is HIGHLY UNETHICAL Case Study #1 Simon Born deaf and observed from 29 years old Parents signed ASL using bad grammar, but Simon deducted the grammar rules on his own and signed correctly Case Study #2 Genie Suffered from severe isolation and abuse with no introduction to language until foster care Her language developed using the normal sequence of very young children Never really acquired full fluency, so she used telegraphic language and had syntax issues The fact that she developed language shows that there is a sensitive period of language development, but it is not critical You don’t always have to talk to communicate! Sign language: A form of communication using gestures Gestures are developed before speech, so infants have the ability to learn sign language before speaking Benefits of sign: 1) Increases vocabulary 2) Enhances selfesteem 3) Allows children to communicate earlier (about 8 months) Correlation between a high IQ score and children who were encouraged to use sign language
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