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PSY 270 Chapter 6 notes

by: Samantha Grissom

PSY 270 Chapter 6 notes PSY 270

Samantha Grissom
GPA 3.76

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These are the notes that we took within two class periods. The notes include everything you need to know about Cognitive Development, such as Piaget, stages, language, milestones, and brain structu...
Child Psychology
Class Notes
cognitive, development, Infant, piaget, Theory, nature, nurture, stages, Language, speech, motherese, Broca, wernicke, Milestones, cooing, echolalia, holophrases, Recognition, visual
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 6: Cognitive Development in Infants To understand the concept, we need to start from the beginning with its created Jean Piaget ­ Theorist focused on the stages of development and created the Cognitive Theory ­ Questioned how knowledge was developed ­ Focused on the development of the ways children perceive and represent the world  mentally ­ Concepts he used: ­ Scheme ­ Concepts about the world ­ Can be represented in action patterns, mental structures, and knowledge ­ Schemes adapt and change as the child grows and develops ­ Assimilation ­ The incorporations of new knowledge into existing schemes ­ Accommodation ­ Modifying schemes because of the new information or knowledge Cognitive Theory: ­ 4 stages: ­ Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years) ­ Goals: ­ Infants progress from performing their reflexes to  performing intentional actions ­ Mental representations are developed ­ Holding pictures of objects/past events in their  memory ­ Solve problems through trial and error (symbolic  play) ­ Substages: 1) Simple Reflexes (birth – 1 month) ­ Reflexive schemes­ modification of reflexes occur based on experiences ex) sucking on anything that touches their face  to sucking for milk ­ Not many purposeful actions are made, and if they are, it’s  by chance not choice ­ There are no connections between stimulation from  different senses (infants cannot connect seeing a hand  shake a rattle and hearing a rattle shake) 2) Primary Circular Reaction (1 – 4 months) ­ “primary” ­the focus on infants body movements ­ “circular” ­repetitive actions that affect the environment of  the child ­ Infants learn to control reflexes and develop schemes by  repetitive habits of movement 3) Secondary Circular Reaction (4 – 8 months) ­ “secondary”­ focus on the movements of objects ­ An infant may accidentally move an object, and then  intentionally repeat that action ­ They use this repetition to observe how the movement  impacts his/her environment ­ If an object is out of sight, it does not exist 4) Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8 – 12 months) ­ Infants exhibit intentional, goal oriented behaviors,  meaning they can finally mentally represent goals ­ Also copy actions they don’t know or have never done  before 5) Tertiary Circular Reaction (12­ 18 months) ­ Infants modify schemes when faced with new situations ­ Piaget calls infants “miniature scientists” because they  experiment with trial and error 6) Invention of New Means through Mental Combinations (18 ­ 24  months) ­ Infants transition to symbolic thought ­ They mentally explore through situations  ­ Ex) pulling objects into a crib at 18 months old ­ Preoperational stage (2 years – 7 years) ­ Concreate operational stage (7 years – 11 years) ­ Formal operational stage (11 years +) Object Permanence: ­ Recognizing that objects exist even when they cannot be seen ­ Neonates don’t respond to objects out of their grasp ­ 2 months: infants exhibit some surprise when a screen is lifted and the object of their  desire is no longer there; they will look longer but not search for the object ­ 6 months: infants perceive a mental representation of the object and look for dropped  items or try to retrieve partially hidden objects ­ 8 – 12 months: infants retrieve completely hidden objects ­ Object permanence is said to exist in some form or another as early as 2.5 – 3.5 months of  age ­ An experiment tested infants less than 4 months old, using a 180 degree rotating  screen. They included possible and impossible events (the screen couldn’t rotate  the full 180 degrees because there’s a block in the way) ­ Children look longer at the impossible event, suggesting  they understand that the block still exists even though it’s  covered by the screen ­ Tested in non­human subjects: ­ When tested, orangutans and chimpanzees perform as well as 2 year olds in object permanence ­ Magpies also contain object permanence because they keep stores of food and  have to remember where they stored the food. It develops right before the bird  starts storing food for itself. Social Influences: ­ Sociocultural Theory­ theory that focuses on teaching and learning in infants ­ Zone of proximal development­ skilled partners introduce the intellectual tools of society  to an infant ­ Ex) reading picture books ­ Scaffolding­ adults providing a learning situation to structure the rest of the child’s  learning ­ Children perform better in unskilled tasks when they are given maternal scaffolding Individual Differences in Cognitive Functioning ­ Developmental quotient­ overall developmental score within certain categories called  domains ­ 4 domains of developmental quotient: 1) Motor skills 2) Language use 3) Adaptive behavior 4) Personal and social skills ­ Many developmental and intellectual scales exist, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant  development, 178 mental scale, 111 motor scale ­ Behavior ratings scales are based on a researcher’s observations rather than tests ­ Reasons for measuring: 1) Screen for deficits in learning 2) Catches the early signs of sensory/neurological problem 3) Various scales (Bazelton…. And Neonatal ICU…) “so if my baby scores really high on these scales, he/she is going to be a genius, right?” ­ These scales do not predict the child’s later IQ score or grades in school because a child’s  IQ fluctuates during this particular period in his/her age ­ There are specific items tested that predict related skills at a later age ­ The scales are the most useful because they identify developmental lags Visual Recognition Memory: ­ The ability to  discriminate previously seen objects from new objects based on habitually  being shown the object ­ This test is better for predicting IQ scores and language ability ­ Rose et. al. (1992) ­ 7 month olds were shown a picture of 2 identical faces, given a 20 second break,  and then shown either the same two faces or one of the faces plus one new face. ­ Children stared at the newer face longer ­ Standard IQ test from ages 1­6 years ­ Higher visual recognition memory scores correlate positively with higher IQ scores Language: ­ A systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols that provides a basis for  communication ­ Components of language: 1) Phonology ­ Basic sounds 2) Morphology ­ Smallest meaningful unit of language ­ Ex) suffixes, prefixes 3) Phoneme ­ Smallest unit of sound ­ Ex) consonants and vowels 4) Semantics ­ Rules of the meaning of words ­ Ex) denotation and connotation ­ Prelinguistic vocalizations­ system of communication used before language develops ­ Types of prelinguistic vocalizations: 1) Crying (you know what this is) 2) Cooing (2 months) ­ Using a stream of vowel sounds 3) Babbling (6­9 months) ­ Adding random consonants to random vowels 4) Echolalia (10­12 months) ­ Repeating vowel and consonant combinations 5) Intonation (about 12 months) ­ Adding a rising and falling pattern to the vowel/consonant  combinations; sounds like adult speech How do babies get from making sounds to making sentences? ­ Infant speech also develops in stages: 1) Holophrases ­ Single words to express complex meanings ­ Ex) mama vs. you are mama 2) Telegraphic speech ­ Using the minimum number of words to convey a meaning ­ Ex) home Tuesday vs. I’ll be home Tuesday 3) Two word sentences (18­25 months) ­ Starts to demonstrate syntax, even if it’s wrong ­ Ex) shoe mine vs. my shoe ­ Meaning length of utterance­ average number of morphemes used in one sentence used to  measure the progression of language development ­ Receptive vocabulary­ total number of words that children understand the meaning of ­ Expressive vocabulary­ total number of words that children have the ability to say ­ Receptive vocabulary develops much faster than expressive vocabulary, meaning that  children understand more words than they can actually say ­ About 11­13 months: 1  word ­ Language is slow to develop at this time ­ 18­22 months: vocabulary increases from 50­300+ words (EXPLOSION) ­ Children name objects, which influences the explosion of vocabulary ­ Stages of developing vocabulary: 1) General nominals ­ Ex) dog, cat, horse, etc 2) Specific nominals  ­ Ex) mom, dad, pet’s name 3) Objects that move ­ Ex) car 4) Action words ­ Ex) bye­bye 5) Modifiers ­ Ex) big, hot 6) Expressive ­ Ex) uh­oh, no ­ Language Development styles: 1) Referential ­ The use of language to label objects ­ Using nominals, both general and specific 2) Expressive ­ Using language to engage in social interactions ­ Uses more pronouns ­ As most things in psychology, there is a debate on whether children prefer a  specific style of learning vs. whether the parents focus on naming objects or social interactions ­ Overextensions­ using words in situations in which the meaning of the word is extended ­ Ex) a child may refer to a dog as bowwow ­ Extends to any familiar animal until the name/word for a specific animal or group  is finally learned ­ Infants can enhance their language growth when adults aid: 1) Use questions to engage the child 2) Relate adult speech to child utterances 3) Read/talk to the child 4) Use infant directed speech ­ Motherese­ slow, high­pitched, speech with pauses between ideas; uses simple sentences ­ Babies prefer it ­ Also known as “pet talk” Milestones of Language Development: ­ 12 weeks: cooing ­ 16 weeks: responds to human sounds and turns head to look for speaker ­ 20 weeks: cooing morphs with consonants ­ 6 months: babbling ­ 8 months: repeats babblings and utterances have meaning/emotions ­ 10 months: imitates sounds, not always correctly ­ 12 months: begins to make words and understands requests ­ 18 months: vocabulary explosion ­ 24 months: two word sentences with effortful communication And of course, the ever­present nature vs. nurture debate that we all know and love Theories of Language Development­Nurture: 1) Imitation ­ Children often learn from their parents ­ They repeat what they hear ­ But this doesn’t explain phrases that children utter but have never  heard 2) Reinforcement ­ Parents reinforce approximate forms of real words ­ Extinction­ words that aren’t reinforced disappear from an  infant’s vocabulary ­ Shaping­ building of complex behavior through reinforcement  of successive approximations of the target word ­ Parents may reinforce the content uttered rather than the  correct grammar of the utterance ­ The same pattern of acquiring language exists across many  learning environments Theories of Language Development­Nature: ­ Children have an innate ability to learn languages 1) Psycholinguistic theory ­  Children interact between their environment and innate factors in order to acquire language Language Acquisition Device: ­ The innate tendency to learn a language ­ Evidence: ­ The language ability is universal ­ There’s a regularity of a child’s early production of sounds ­ Sequences of language development is invariant across languages ­ This innate tendency primes a child’s nervous system to learn grammar ­ Surface structure­ languages differ in vocabulary and grammar ­ Deep structure­ the universal grammar that’s shared across languages Brain Structures used in Language: ­ Located in the left hemisphere: 1) Broca’s Area 2) Wernicke’s Area ­ Damage to these areas causes aphasia (impairment or inability to understand or produce  language) ­ Damage specifically to the Broca’s area causes slow, labored speech with simple  sentences ­ Damage specifically to the Wernicke’s area causes impaired comprehension of speech  and expression of the individual’s thoughts ­ Angular gyrus­ translates visual information into auditory sounds; used primarily when  reading ­ damage can result in reading difficulties or even dyslexia ­ There is a sensitive period in learning development thanks to the brain’s plasticity at this  age (18 months­puberty) ­ Experience with language alters the brain’s structure ­ By adolescence, the brain reaches its adult level of differentiation and becomes less  plastic ­ Brain injuries severely affect the development of language ­ Damage to the left hemisphere can impair or completely destroy an individual’s  ability to speak ­ Pre­pubescent children can actually recover from brain injuries with the ability to  speak ­ In an ideal experiment, researchers would rear a group of children under different  conditions, such as severe isolation, but this is HIGHLY UNETHICAL Case Study #1­ Simon ­ Born deaf and observed from 2­9 years old ­ Parents signed ASL using bad grammar, but Simon deducted the grammar rules on his  own and signed correctly Case Study #2­ Genie ­ Suffered from severe isolation and abuse with no introduction to language until foster  care ­ Her language developed using the normal sequence of very young children ­ Never really acquired full fluency, so she used telegraphic language and had syntax  issues The fact that she developed language shows that there is a sensitive period of language  development, but it is not critical You don’t always have to talk to communicate! Sign language: ­ A form of communication using gestures ­ Gestures are developed before speech, so infants have the ability to learn sign language  before speaking ­ Benefits of sign: 1) Increases vocabulary 2) Enhances self­esteem 3) Allows children to communicate earlier (about 8 months) ­ Correlation between a high IQ score and children who were encouraged to use sign  language


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