Chapter 3: Race & Ethnicity
Chapter 3: Race & Ethnicity Syg2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Gnecco on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Syg2010 at Florida State University taught by Kaley Boggs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
SYG2010 Chapter 3 Racial & Ethnic Inequality By Sierra Gnecco ● Americans believe there are more immigrants in the U.S. than there actually are. Prediction: 39% of U.S. population, Reality: 13% of U.S. population ● Americans also exaggerate that most immigrants are illegal. 30% of U.S. immigrants do not have legal documentation. ● Racial and ethnic differences are not only a source of strength for the U.S., but are also source of tension and conflict. ● Race and ethnicity are important parts of social inequality. 3.1: Race & Ethnicity Race ● Race- a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society define as important. ● For hundreds of years, people in most societies have divided humanity into different categories. ○ Categories based upon skin color, hair texture, facial features, and body shape. ● Race is NOT a biological category. ○ Diff. races do not have high differences in genetics. There is no more genetic difference between racial groups than there is within them. ○ Ex: An African American male and an European male have just as many genetic differences as the same African American male with another man of the same race. ○ As global trade brought the world’s people into greater contact, awareness of human diversity increased. By the late 1500’s, Europeans began using the term “race” to categorize people. ● There are no biologically pure races. Ethnicity ● Ethnicity- a shared cultural heritage, which typically involves common ancestors, language, and religion. 2 Immigration ● U.S.’s racial and ethnic diversity is a product of immigration. ● The “Great Immigration” ○ Started w/the end of Civil War in 1865 and lasted until the outbreak of WWI in 1914. This was during the Industrial Revolution which attracted many to the cities along the East Coast ● Nativists and the Quota System ○ Nativists opposed the high level of immigration, fearing it would endanger this country’s mostly English culture. ○ Pressured by nativists, congress enacted laws (Immigration Act of 1924) which cut immigration and created a quota system. ○ In 1965, Congress ended the quota system. Minorities ● Minority- any category of people, identified by physical or cultural traits, that a society subjects to disadvantages. ○ They share a distinctive identity (race, ethnicity, physical traits, etc.) ○ They have a social disadvantage (typically are in poverty, have less schooling, lower-paying jobs, etc.) 3.2: Patterns of Majority-Minority Interaction ● Sociologists use models to study the patterns of the interactions between majority and minority populations. ○ These models include genocide, segregation, assimilation, and pluralism. Pluralism ● Pluralism- a state in which people of all racial and ethnic categories have about the same overall social standing. ● Represents a situation in which no minority category is subject to disadvantage. 3 3.3: The Social Standing of U.S. Minorities Native Americans ● In 1830s, U.S. forcibly removed the Cherokee from their homelands in the SE U.S., causing many deaths known as the Trail of Tears. ● In 1871, U.S. declared American Indians wards of the gov. and wanted assimilation. African Americans ● 1857: Dred Scott Case- U.S. Supreme Court supported belief that slaves weren’t citizens entitled to rights and protections of U.S. law. ● 1896: Plessy vs. Fergus separate but equal. ● 1954: Brown vs. Board of Education- separate but equal schools unconstitutional. ● 1965: Gained full citizenship rights. Asian Americans ● Fastest growing racial immigrant category in the U.S. ● 1849: Gold rush in CA created a demand for workers → flow of immigrants from China and Japan to NA. ● WW II (1939-45)/Pearl Harbor impact ○ FDR issued Executive Order 9066 1942 forcibly relocated over 100,000 Japanese to military camps until 1944. ■ Forced them to sell their businesses, homes, and farms. Hispanic American/Latino ● Largest U.S. minority today. ● Many had lived for centuries in lands that were claimed by the U.S. after the Mexican War (1846-1848) ○ Lands: Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, California, and Colorado. 4 Arab Americans ● Complex ancestry and religion. 3.4: Prejudice ● Prejudice- any rigid and unfounded generalization about an entire category of people. Stereotypes ● Stereotype- an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category. Racism ● Racism- the assertion that people of one race are less worthy than or even biologically inferior to others. Institutional Racism ● Institutional racism- racism at work in the operation of social institutions, including the economy, schools, hospitals, the military, and the criminal justice system. ● Racial profiling illustrates the operational of institutional racism. 3.5: Discrimination ● Discrimination- the unequal treatment of various categories of people. ● Prejudice is a matter of attitudes while discrimination is a matter of actions. Affirmative Action ● Affirmative action- policies intended to improve the social standing of minorities subject to past prejudice and discrimination. ● Is a strategy aimed at breaking the circle of prejudice and discrimination. 5 ● Examples: ○ GI Bill after WWI funded education to vets. ○ President Kennedy: Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (1961) which forbade employers with federal contracts from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, or religion. ○ President Johnson: t he Civil Rights Act (1964), which prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin by private employers, agencies, and educational institutions receiving federal funds. ○ Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act permits the consideration of race, national origin, sex, or disability to provide opportunities to people who have been denied educational opportunities. ● Affirmative action policies have been applied to student recruitment, admissions, and financial aid programs. ● Arguments: ○ Encourages preferential treatment for minorities. ○ Through affirmative action, we address the historical societal discrimination that minorities experienced in the past.
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