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Cardiovascular System: Blood

by: Charissa Notetaker

Cardiovascular System: Blood biol 216

Marketplace > Liberty University > Biology > biol 216 > Cardiovascular System Blood
Charissa Notetaker

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About this Document

power point and textbook notes from lab
Human Anatomy and Physiology 11 Lab
Ms. Lenz
Class Notes
anatomy, A&P2, A&PII, A&P, Blood, red blood cells, Cardiovascular, cardiovascular system
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charissa Notetaker on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to biol 216 at Liberty University taught by Ms. Lenz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 11 Lab in Biology at Liberty University.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Cardiovascular: Blood Introduction 1. The cardiovascular system has 3 main components: a. Blood – transportation medium for gases, proteins, cells, hormones, etc. b. Blood vessels – conduct blood to every cell in the body. c. Heart – pumps blood through the vessels. Properties and Composition of Blood 1. Blood is a connective tissue – composed of specialized cells suspended in an extracellular matrix. 2. Matrix is a liquid called plasma. a. Plasma is a viscous, watery solution containing numerous different solutes. 3. Specialized cells in blood are collectively called formed elements. a. RBCs. b. WBCs. c. Platelets. 4. Together they form whole blood. a. Whole blood is an extremely useful tissue clinically as alterations in its properties can provide clues to many pathological conditons. Components of Whole Blood Blood Plasma 1. Protein found abundantly in plasma is fibrinogen. 2. Fibrinogen is soluble in water. a. Converted to a non-soluble form called fibrin. b. Insoluble fibrin fibers catch cells floating in the bloodstream resulting in a blood clot. 3. Blood plasma with fibrinogen removed is called serum. The Formed Elements 1. Three types of cells: a. RBCs (red blood cells). b. WBCs (white blood cells). c. Platelets (thrombocytes). Red Blood Cells 1. Erythrocytes: a. Most abundant (~5 million RBCs per microliter of whole blood). b. Not “living” cells. i. No nucleus or mitochondria. c. Sacs filled almost entirely with one protein: hemoglobin. i. Reversibly binds oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the cells in the body. d. Only circulate through the bloodstream for 120 days before being replaced. 2. Structure = Function a. Several structural features that aid in their function, which is to deliver oxygen to all cells. i. Extremely small. 1. Increases rate of transmission of oxygen, allows RBCs to fit through tiny capillaries. ii. Flattened shape. 1. Allows them to stack like dinner plates as they pass through tiny capillaries. iii. Bi-concave discs. 1. Shape has the maximum surface area: volume ratio, increasing transmission rate of oxygen. White Blood Cells 1. Less than 0.1% of the formed elements. 2. Lymphocytes: a. Cells of the lymphatic system. b. Participate in immune response. c. Smooth appearance, thin crescent of cytoplasm, stain purple. 3. Basophils: a. Accumulate at injury sites. b. Release histamine and heparin. i. Histamine – dilation of blood vessels. ii. Heparin – slows blood clotting. c. Dark granules, nerd candy appearance, stain purple. 4. Neutrophils: a. Phagocytic – engulf and destroy foreign cells. b. Most abundant of the WBCs. c. Make up the white/yellow appearance of pus in a wound. d. Multi-lobed nucleus, stain pink. 5. Monocytes: a. Phagocytic – can destroy pathogens and infected body cells. b. Large cell, U-shaped nucleus, stain purple. 6. Eosinophils: a. Attack and destroy large invading organisms like parasitic worms. b. Light granules, bi-lobed nucleus, stain pink. 7. Platelets: a. Lack organelles, metabolically inactive. b. Small sacs filled with proteins for clotting. c. Proteins are required to convert fibrinogen to fibrin. Blood Typing 1. Blood type is determined by antigens present on the RBC surface. a. Rh antigen (“positive” or “negative”). b. A antigen. c. B antigen. 2. The body develops antibodies to any other type that is not naturally present. 3. Blood types cannot be mixed in the body. 4. Antibodies bind to foreign antigens  agglutination (clumping) reaction. Blood Pathologies 1. Sickle Cell Anemia: a. Mutant hemoglobin distorts the shape of the RBC into a crescent, or sickle shape. b. Don’t transport oxygen as well. c. Clump up in blood vessels. 2. Leukemia: a. Cancer affecting leukocytes (WBCs)  abundant, mutant leukocytes. 3. CBC – Complete Blood Count: a. Lab test to provide overall picture of patient’s blood.


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