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BSC 114 Chapter 9 Notes: Cellular Respiration

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapter 9 Notes: Cellular Respiration BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC 114 Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration
Lauren Dutch
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notes from the book and lecture over cellular respiration
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration I. Catabolic pathways yield energy in the form of ATP by oxidizing organic fuels A. Oxidation is the removal of an electron B. Reduction is the addition of an electron C. Oxidation and reduction reactions come in pairs 1. Ex: When methane is burned, methane is oxidized and oxygen is reduced  Carbon binds with the more electronegative oxygen, so it “loses” electrons. Oxygen binds with less electronegative hydrogen, so it “gains” electrons. 2. The electron donor is called the reducing agent, e.g. carbon in the above example. The electron acceptor is called the oxidizing agent, e.g. oxygen in the example above. D. NAD+ and NADH 1. NAD+ acts as an electron shuttle, accepting and donating electrons over and over 2. NAD+ accepts two electrons and 1 proton (H+) to become NADH Making ATP: 2 processes- substrate level phosphorylation and respiration II. Substrate level phosphorylation occurs when ATP synthesis from ADP is coupled to a more exergonic reaction X- P4 + ADP  X + ATP … overall energy change is less than 0, exergonic  The reaction of ADP and the phosphate to make ATP is 7.3 kcal/mol  The reaction of the element X and the phosphate to split up is less than -7.3 kcal/mol  So, the overall reaction of substrate level phosphorylation is exergonic (less than 0) Respiration III. Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate in the cytoplasm A. Glycolysis is “sugar splitting”; one of many catabolic pathways that feeds into the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation B. Part 1 1. 2 ATPs per glucose are invested 2. A six carbon glucose is split into 2 three carbon molecules C. Part 2 1. Atoms in three carbon molecules are rearranged into pyruvate 2. 4 ATPS are made by substrate level phosphorylation 3. 2 NADHs are produced D. Net production 1. -2 ATP + 4 ATP = 2 ATP 2. 2 NADH IV. After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy yielding oxidation of organic molecules in the mitochondria A. The mitochondria has two membranes 1. Outer membrane is smooth 2. Inner membrane is folded into cristae  The matrix is the area enclosed by the inner membrane  The intermembrane space is between the inner membrane and the outer membrane B. Pyruvate oxidation 1. Pyruvate (a three carbon molecule) is oxidized to become a 2 carbon molecule and carbon dioxide 2. NAD+ is reduced to become NADH 3. In this step, there is no substrate level phosphorylation so there is not ATP production C. Citric acid cycle 1. The two carbon acetate group is added to the four carbon oxaloacetate 2. The cycle occurs when the six carbon citric acid is converted to four carbon oxaloacetate; carbons are removed as carbon dioxide; ATP and NADH are produced  Oxidation: 6 carbon molecule  5 carbon molecule + CO + N2DH 5 carbon molecule  4 carbon molecule + CO + N2DH  Reduction: produce NADH and FADH ; 3 2ADHs and 1 FADH are 2 produced for each acetate  Substrate level phosphorylation: 1 GTP is made from a phosphate and GDP Net yield of respiration from a glucose molecule: 4 ATP, 10 NADH, and 2 FADH 2 Oxidative Phosphorylation- gets energy out of the NADH and FADH from 2 respiration to make ATP V. During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis A. Electron transport chain is the exergonic release of electrons 1. NADH and FADH fro2 glycolysis and citric acid cycle transfer electrons to carrier molecules 2. Electrons move from one carrier molecule to another along the electron transport chain which is a series of proteins and associated molecules  Series of integral membrane proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane 3. Final electron acceptor is oxygen, which produces H O 2 - + 2e + 2H + O  H O2  Oxygen is ESSENTIAL for the electron transport chain B. The energy from the exergonic reactions is used to power proton pumps which pump H+ ions against their gradient from the matrix into the intermembrane space 1. This proton gradient is ESSENTIAL for the next step in oxidative phosphorylation C. Chemiosmosis performs ATP synthesis by using energy in the H+ gradient 1. Just like a motor turns electric energy into kinetic energy, the Na+K+ pump is a biological motor that turns chemical energy (ATP) into the movement of Na+ and K+ 2. Just like a generator converts kinetic energy into electric energy, ATP synthases turns the movement of H+ ions down their gradient into chemical energy (ATP) 3. Process of chemiosmosis  High concentration of H+ ions in intermembrane space because of electron transport energy pumping protons across the membrane  Now the H+ ions flow down their gradient in an exergonic reaction; creates a proton motive force to turn the rotor on ATP synthase  ATP synthase is an enzyme that uses the proton motive force to make ATP from ADP and phosphate  ATP is produced in the matrix Oxidative phosphorylation is the combination of electron transport to create a proton motive force and then chemiosmosis to use the proton motive force to produce ATP Net yield: 2.5 ATP for NADH and 1.5 ATP for FA2H because FAD2 starts losing electrons later in the chain VI. W i t h o u t oxygen, there is no electron transport chain or citric acid cycle. The only process that occurs is glycolysis which produces 2 ATP. A. Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen 1. Fermentation is the production of waste products from anaerobic glycolysis 2. NADH + pyruvate  waste product + NAD+ 3. Waste products include ethanol + carbon dioxide, lactate, and others


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