What are the Two Levels of Analysis Week 5 and 6
What are the Two Levels of Analysis Week 5 and 6 SOCI 100
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in General Sociology
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ENGL 150- 001 (, Blake R. Westerlund)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by angelleblanchard on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 100 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jessica S. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
What are the two levels of analysis? Macro o Functionalism o Conflict theory Micro o Symbolic interactionism Macrosociology o The components of social structure working together o Maintain social order o Social Structure: society’s framework Directs and sets limits on behavior Limits, guide, organize Social location Typical pattern of group that guides behavior of individuals and groups (but doesn’t determine it) Can’t see it, can see evidence of it Tends of override personal feelings Sets what is expected for us Need other people to engage in these things Positions in relation to other people How we understand what is expected from us Direct behavior Sets the boundaries How all these elements fit together Key things: trying to maintain social order Make things standardized Routine Social structure does have an impact on the pattern of behavior on people in a certain institution Some argue that social structure defines how people act because of where they are placed Framework does have an effect on the groups and individuals Status symbols: how something is Ex. Class room: teacher and student [physical placement of people] o Students sit and listen; teacher generally stand and teach Overrides personal emotion Doesn’t matter how a person feels that day o All feelings take a temporary pause Where social location comes into play Example of social structure: a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals According to Palmer, what is it about The Walking Dead that scares us? o There is no social structure No rules in terms of a normal way of behaving in society o Folkways, mores, and taboos, go out the window Way of survival o Because we have that need for structure we start to see people create a new order Something we get sick of, but we want it because life becomes pointless Culture o Affects what kind of people we will become o Has an effect on who we are o Framework o Norms o Behaviors Social class o Income, wealth, power, education, prestige o Groups of people based on the amount of income, education, and property they have o Modern element: education We find at the higher levels of social class education plays a bigger role Social status o A social position that an individual occupies o Position an individual occupies Society, group, or institution o Ex. Job [teacher], athlete, police officer, bartender, mother, father, sister, female, male, student, religion, ethnicity, sexuality, age Social structure: Status o Position occupied by individual o Amount of prestige varies o Provides guidelines for how we are to act and feel o Not all jobs have the same level of prestige Varies depending on what occupation you are talking about o How we view the world o What our beliefs are o Status set All statuses or positions occupied by individual You aren’t just your job You are other things o Ascribed status Position inherited at birth or received “involuntarily” later in life Involuntary Inherited Ex. Race, age, religion [up to a certain point], social class [up to a certain point and then it becomes an achieved status] o Achieved status Positions earned or accomplished Involves some effort or activity Accomplished Chosen it Done something in order to achieve that status Ex. Marriage, occupation, education, parental status [could be either] o Status symbols Signs people use who want others to recognize that they occupy a certain status Manifestations of someone’s social status Things that give people the message that you are of a certain status For some jobs its more important for people to be recognizable for their status Ex. Who is a cop, should be obvious who is who in a hospital Social class: the way they dress [wearing a suit; terms of the quality of the suit, fit] o Master status Cuts across or dominates statuses of others Can be under achieved or ascribed Could be either A status that dominates all the other statuses When people think of a person or refer to a person this is the one thing they think of first What tends to happen: because it dominates all the other statuses people treat the/act a certain way around them based on that status Ex. Doctor, priest, mother, cop, president, celebrity, athlete, race, disabled, gender, criminal background, substance abuse Ex. Bailey pole vaulting o Status inconsistency Contradiction or mismatch between statuses Can override other statuses May affect others’ perception Mismatch that occurs between different statuses People can occupy two statuses that don’t go together Discomfort of others because they don’t know which one they need to used One can override the other Ex. Mean boss vs. when this boss has a kid and becomes nice; age [11yearold college student] o Roles The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Lay out what is expected of people Individuals occupy statuses, but play roles Role set: roles attached to a single status Behaviors that are associated with the position You occupy the status but you play the role Ex. Student [things you have that are expected of you as a student] For each status there are multiple roles o Groups People who regularly and consciously interact with one another Typically share similar values, norms, and expectations Give up some control over our lives Depends on the relationship and amount of interaction People that get together on a regular basis and interact Usually what people see is members of the groups share particular values and interest People tend to forget about: whatever group you belong to; you give up some amount of control to your life Depends on how into these groups you are Ex. Family o Social institutions Society’s standard ways of meeting its basic needs In industrialized societies, social institutions tend to be more formal Has its own groups, status, values, and norms Set limits and rules of our behavior What are the basic needs of society? Feeding people, a way for people to make money/support themselves, having someone to enforce these rules, having a way to transmit knowledge, having a way for people to shelter themselves, child care, making sure that their health is taken care of, group that will provide moral support, religion Each institution has its on groups Don’t just think of physical structure Set patterns of behavior Ex. Family, religious group, military unit Macrosociology o When you look at how to change social structure you have to look at how the culture is formed Values and beliefs o What would spur a change in a social structure? o A change in culture o Emile Durkheim What holds society together? [macro level] Social cohesion o The degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other bonds o People form bonds based on shared beliefs and values o Division of labor o Mechanical solidarity is a collective consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks This is when people experience of cohesion of experiencing the same task Ex. Communities of farming [people were bonding over the beliefs and values that revolved around farming] Reliance upon one another Everyone is doing the same job o Organic solidarity is a collective consciousness based on the interdependence brought about by an increasingly specialized division of labor Specialized division of labor Where there is interdependence based on the idea that everyone is doing different jobs to support the community Functionalist o Ferdinand Tonnies Who holds society together? Tonnies analyzed how intimate community was being replaced by impersonal associations German concepts Had the same question as Durkheim but looked at it differently He looked at the idea of intimate community vs. impersonal associations What we can do for each other Dominate society Their relationship is based off of this Gemeinschaft Is a society in which life is intimate o A community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness Intimate community Idea that there is more of a focus on the intimate bond Knowing one another The individual themselves is important Ex. Amish [shared values, monitored community] People are trying to bring this back [river ranch] Amish Nickel Mines Murder Gesellschaft Is a society dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and selfinterest Impersonal relationships People are much more focused on what they want, their goals, and not how their life affects people Together because of social structure Functional relationship Ex. Students and professor Ex. CC’s coffee and Barnes and Nobel [people studying] Microsociology o Behavior does not depend on the objective existence of something, but on our subjective interpretation o Argue that reality is subjectively created by people’s perceptions of “what is real” o People define their own realities and then live within those definitions o Places emphasis on facetoface social interaction, or what people do when they are in the presence of one another o Focus on the smaller interaction o How people act around other people vs. when other people is not around o Symbols o When we talk about reality it is subjective It is what you say it is/believe it it Created within an interaction Situation is defined within an interaction o Stereotypes First impressions are shaped by the assumptions one person makes about a person’s sex, race, age, and physical appearance, etc. Affects one’s ideas about the person and how one acts toward that person Tend to be selffulfilling – they bring out the very kinds of behavior that fit the stereotype Come about during first impressions Seeing a person and seeing what they are perceived as people tend to make assumptions on who that person is, their values, what they are capable of, etc. What tends to happen: your interaction tends to be based off of what you think is true based off of the symbols that you see Our behavior and the person’s behavior can be based off of a stereotype If you treat people based off of a stereotype that person will live up to the stereotype based off of the way they are treated Ex. Small children [don’t tell a kid that they are bad because they will begin to start acting like that] o Avoid labeling a child Tend to put these stereotypes and label them to that group of people o Some concepts in microsociology Social construction of reality How people construct their views of the world We construct our own reality W.I. Thomas and Dorothy S. Thomas o Thomas theorem o Chicago o Came up with this statement that clarifies the social structure of society “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences o If you enter into a situation where you believe the situation is true, then no matter what that person does, or present, the person still believes it Ex. No matter how much evidence you share with your significant other that you are not cheating, they wont believe you No matter how many times you tell Micah that nothing is going on between Hannah and Cole, HE DOESN’T BELIEVE YOU. o Ex. Paying a stranger to shave your face [picture] o Erving Goffman Dramaturgy An analysis of how we present ourselves in everyday life Social life is analyzed in terms of drama or this stage Socialization prepares people for learning to perform on the “stage” of everyday life Wrote a book that outlined this theory He looks at how people present themselves Comes from the concept that you can think of people on a “stage” o In a “play” o The audience determines how you are supposed to act Front stage o Where performances are given o Performance is given Ex. At school – classroom [image/performance: that you care, active participant, well mannered] Back stage o Is where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and plan future performances o Not performing o Turned off o Get your energy back o Planning/preparing your next performance Ex. Student – room, shower, around your friends In relation with friends – room Role performance o Is the particular emphasis or interpretation that an individual gives a role, the person’s “style” o The particular style you bring to a performance Ex. Waiting tables Front stage: at the table Back stage: kitchen, putting in the order, bathroom Role performance: style in the way they wait tables Teamwork o Which is when two or more players work together to make sure a performance goes off as planned, shows that we are skilled players o People that come together to make sure a performance is successful Ex. Waiting tables If you can’t get to your table and another server will bring their drinks or take their order If there is 50people at one table, servers help bring the food out Levels of Analysis o Necessary to grasp both social structure [macrosociology] and social interaction [microsociology] o Both are necessary to understand social life fully because each adds to our knowledge of human experience o One isn’t better than the other o Each provide us with a different perspective o Get a better picture on people’s experiences
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