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What are the Two Levels of Analysis Week 5 and 6

by: angelleblanchard

What are the Two Levels of Analysis Week 5 and 6 SOCI 100

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > SOCI 100 > What are the Two Levels of Analysis Week 5 and 6
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These notes cover everything from week 5 and part of week 6.
General Sociology
Jessica S. Pearce
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by angelleblanchard on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 100 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jessica S. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.

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Date Created: 10/04/16
What are the two levels of analysis?  Macro  o Functionalism o Conflict theory  Micro o Symbolic interactionism  Macrosociology o The components of social structure working together o Maintain social order o Social Structure: society’s framework  Directs and sets limits on behavior  Limits, guide, organize  Social location  Typical pattern of group that guides behavior of individuals and groups (but doesn’t  determine it)  Can’t see it, can see evidence of it  Tends of override personal feelings  Sets what is expected for us  Need other people to engage in these things  Positions in relation to other people  How we understand what is expected from us  Direct behavior  Sets the boundaries   How all these elements fit together   Key things: trying to maintain social order  Make things standardized   Routine   Social structure does have an impact on the pattern of behavior on people in a certain  institution   Some argue that social structure defines how people act because of where they are  placed  Framework does have an effect on the groups and individuals  Status symbols: how something is  Ex. Class room: teacher and student [physical placement of people] o Students sit and listen; teacher generally stand and teach  Overrides personal emotion  Doesn’t matter how a person feels that day o All feelings take a temporary pause   Where social location comes into play  Example of social structure: a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals   According to Palmer, what is it about The Walking Dead that scares us? o There is no social structure   No rules in terms of a normal way of behaving in society o Folkways, mores, and taboos, go out the window   Way of survival  o Because we have that need for structure we start to see people create a new order  Something we get sick of, but we want it because life becomes pointless  Culture o Affects what kind of people we will become o Has an effect on who we are o Framework o Norms o Behaviors  Social class o Income, wealth, power, education, prestige o Groups of people based on the amount of income, education, and property they have o Modern element: education  We find at the higher levels of social class education plays a bigger role  Social status o A social position that an individual occupies o Position an individual occupies  Society, group, or institution  o Ex. Job [teacher], athlete, police officer, bartender, mother, father, sister, female, male, student,  religion, ethnicity, sexuality, age  Social structure: Status o Position occupied by individual  o Amount of prestige varies o Provides guidelines for how we are to act and feel o Not all jobs have the same level of prestige  Varies depending on what occupation you are talking about o How we view the world o What our beliefs are o Status set  All statuses or positions occupied by individual   You aren’t just your job   You are other things o Ascribed status  Position inherited at birth or received “involuntarily” later in life  Involuntary   Inherited   Ex. Race, age, religion [up to a certain point], social class [up to a certain point and then it  becomes an achieved status]  o Achieved status  Positions earned or accomplished  Involves some effort or activity   Accomplished  Chosen it  Done something in order to achieve that status  Ex. Marriage, occupation, education, parental status [could be either] o Status symbols  Signs people use who want others to recognize that they occupy a certain status  Manifestations of someone’s social status   Things that give people the message that you are of a certain status  For some jobs its more important for people to be recognizable for their status  Ex. Who is a cop, should be obvious who is who in a hospital  Social class: the way they dress [wearing a suit; terms of the quality of the suit, fit] o Master status  Cuts across or dominates statuses of others  Can be under achieved or ascribed  Could be either  A status that dominates all the other statuses   When people think of a person or refer to a person this is the one thing they think of first  What tends to happen: because it dominates all the other statuses people treat the/act a certain way around them based on that status  Ex. Doctor, priest, mother, cop, president, celebrity, athlete, race, disabled, gender, criminal  background, substance abuse  Ex. Bailey  pole vaulting o Status inconsistency  Contradiction or mismatch between statuses   Can override other statuses  May affect others’ perception  Mismatch that occurs between different statuses  People can occupy two statuses that don’t go together  Discomfort of others because they don’t know which one they need to used  One can override the other  Ex. Mean boss vs. when this boss has a kid and becomes nice; age [11­year­old college  student] o Roles  The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status  Lay out what is expected of people  Individuals occupy statuses, but play roles  Role set: roles attached to a single status  Behaviors that are associated with the position  You occupy the status but you play the role  Ex. Student [things you have that are expected of you as a student]  For each status there are multiple roles o Groups  People who regularly and consciously interact with one another  Typically share similar values, norms, and expectations  Give up some control over our lives  Depends on the relationship and amount of interaction  People that get together on a regular basis and interact  Usually what people see is members of the groups share particular values and interest  People tend to forget about: whatever group you belong to; you give up some amount of  control to your life  Depends on how into these groups you are  Ex. Family o Social institutions   Society’s standard ways of meeting its basic needs   In industrialized societies, social institutions tend to be more formal  Has its own groups, status, values, and norms  Set limits and rules of our behavior  What are the basic needs of society?  Feeding people, a way for people to make money/support themselves, having  someone to enforce these rules, having a way to transmit knowledge, having a way  for people to shelter themselves, child care, making sure that their health is taken care of, group that will provide moral support, religion  Each institution has its on groups  Don’t just think of physical structure  Set patterns of behavior   Ex. Family, religious group, military unit  Macrosociology o When you look at how to change social structure you have to look at how the culture is formed  Values and beliefs o What would spur a change in a social structure? o A change in culture  o Emile Durkheim   What holds society together? [macro level]  Social cohesion o The degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and  other bonds o People form bonds based on shared beliefs and values o Division of labor o Mechanical solidarity is a collective consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks  This is when people experience of cohesion of experiencing the same  task  Ex. Communities of farming [people were bonding over the  beliefs and values that revolved around farming]  Reliance upon one another  Everyone is doing the same job o Organic solidarity is a collective consciousness based on the interdependence  brought about by an increasingly specialized division of labor  Specialized division of labor  Where there is interdependence based on the idea that everyone is  doing different jobs to support the community  Functionalist  o Ferdinand Tonnies  Who holds society together?  Tonnies analyzed how intimate community was being replaced by impersonal associations  German concepts  Had the same question as Durkheim but looked at it differently  He looked at the idea of intimate community vs. impersonal associations  What we can do for each other  Dominate society  Their relationship is based off of this  Gemeinschaft  Is a society in which life is intimate o A community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a  sense of togetherness  Intimate community  Idea that there is more of a focus on the intimate bond  Knowing one another  The individual themselves is important   Ex. Amish [shared values, monitored community]  People are trying to bring this back [river ranch]  Amish Nickel Mines Murder  Gesellschaft  Is a society dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and  self­interest  Impersonal relationships  People are much more focused on what they want, their goals, and not how their life  affects people  Together because of social structure  Functional relationship  Ex. Students and professor  Ex. CC’s coffee and Barnes and Nobel [people studying]  Microsociology o Behavior does not depend on the objective existence of something, but on our subjective  interpretation o Argue that reality is subjectively created by people’s perceptions of “what is real” o People define their own realities and then live within those definitions o Places emphasis on face­to­face social interaction, or what people do when they are in the presence  of one another o Focus on the smaller interaction o How people act around other people vs. when other people is not around o Symbols  o When we talk about reality it is subjective  It is what you say it is/believe it it  Created within an interaction  Situation is defined within an interaction o Stereotypes  First impressions are shaped by the assumptions one person makes about a person’s sex, race, age, and physical appearance, etc.   Affects one’s ideas about the person and how one acts toward that person  Tend to be self­fulfilling – they bring out the very kinds of behavior that fit the stereotype  Come about during first impressions  Seeing a person and seeing what they are perceived as people tend to make assumptions on  who that person is, their values, what they are capable of, etc.   What tends to happen: your interaction tends to be based off of what you think is true based  off of the symbols that you see  Our behavior and the person’s behavior can be based off of a stereotype  If you treat people based off of a stereotype that person will live up to the stereotype based  off of the way they are treated  Ex. Small children [don’t tell a kid that they are bad because they will begin to start  acting like that]  o Avoid labeling a child  Tend to put these stereotypes and label them to that group of people o Some concepts in microsociology  Social construction of reality   How people construct their views of the world   We construct our own reality   W.I. Thomas and Dorothy S. Thomas o Thomas theorem  o Chicago  o Came up with this statement that clarifies the social structure of society   “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences  o If you enter into a situation where you believe the situation is true, then no  matter what that person does, or present, the person still believes it  Ex. No matter how much evidence you share with your significant  other that you are not cheating, they wont believe you  No matter how many times you tell Micah that nothing is going on between Hannah and Cole, HE DOESN’T BELIEVE YOU. o Ex. Paying a stranger to shave your face [picture] o Erving Goffman  Dramaturgy   An analysis of how we present ourselves in everyday life  Social life is analyzed in terms of drama or this stage  Socialization prepares people for learning to perform on the “stage” of everyday life  Wrote a book that outlined this theory   He looks at how people present themselves   Comes from the concept that you can think of people on a “stage”  o In a “play” o The audience determines how you are supposed to act  Front stage o Where performances are given o Performance is given  Ex. At school – classroom [image/performance: that you care, active  participant, well mannered]  Back stage o Is where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and  plan future performances o Not performing  o Turned off o Get your energy back o Planning/preparing your next performance   Ex. Student – room, shower, around your friends  In relation with friends – room   Role performance  o Is the particular emphasis or interpretation that an individual gives a role, the  person’s “style” o The particular style you bring to a performance  Ex. Waiting tables   Front stage: at the table  Back stage: kitchen, putting in the order, bathroom  Role performance: style in the way they wait tables  Teamwork o Which is when two or more players work together to make sure a performance goes off as planned, shows that we are skilled players o People that come together to make sure a performance is successful  Ex. Waiting tables  If you can’t get to your table and another server will bring their drinks or take their order  If there is 50­people at one table, servers help bring the food  out  Levels of Analysis o Necessary to grasp both social structure [macrosociology] and social interaction [microsociology] o Both are necessary to understand social life fully because each adds to our knowledge of human  experience  o One isn’t better than the other o Each provide us with a different perspective o Get a better picture on people’s experiences 


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