Chapter One Vocab
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsie Newton on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 204 at Portland State University taught by Prof. Chenier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter One Vocab Psychology: the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior Multiply Determined: produced by many factors Naïve Realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is Empiricism: the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation Scientific Theory: an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world, including the psychological world Hypotheses: a testable prediction Theory: a general explanation Confirmation Bias: the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them. Belief Perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial beliefs, even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical Claim: assertion about the world that’s not testable Pseudoscience: set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t Ad Hoc Immunizing Hypothesis: escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification. Patternicity: the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli Terror Management Theory: Theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural world views. Scientific Skepticism: approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them. Critical Thinking: Set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open minded and careful fashion Correlation-Causation Fallacy: error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other. Variable: anything that can vary Falsifiable: capable of being disproved Replicability: when a study’s findings are able to be duplicated, ideally by independent investigators Decline Effect: fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking over time Introspection: method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences Structuralism: school of psychology that aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience Functionalism: school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics. Natural Selection: principle that organisms that possess adaptations survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms Behaviorism: school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behavior. Cognitive Psychology: school of psychology that thinking is central to understanding behavior. Cognitive Neuroscience: relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation between brain functioning and thinking. Psychoanalysis: school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on internal psychological processes of which we’re unaware. Evolutionary Psychology: Discipline that applies Darwin’s Theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior Basic Research: Research examining how the mind works Applied Research: Research examining how we can use basic research to solve real world problems Overt Behavior: observable, measurable actions or activities; visible to the naked eye Covert Behavior: private mental processes (thoughts, feelings), that can’t be directly observed. Can be inferred from overt behaviors.
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