PSY100: week 6 class notes 10/4/16
PSY100: week 6 class notes 10/4/16 PSY 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Chapter 5: Learning Classical conditioning Deals with behaviors that are elicited automatically by some stimulus (exposure based) o Elicit “draw out” or “bring forth” o Pairs neutral stimulus with a responseproducing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response o Example dog hears a bell ring but doesn’t respond (neutral), dog sees a bowl of food and starts salivating (responseproducing). Pair the ringing bell with the food (ring when given food) and the dog salivates, do this enough times and then when you ring the bell the dog will salivate because it pairs the sound of the bell with food (even if there isn’t any) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) the natural stimulus that reflexively produces a response without prior learning o Unconditioned response (UCR) the unlearned, reflexive response Conditioned stimulus (CS) the stimulus that is originally neutral but comes to elicit and reflective response (sound of bell from example) o Conditioned response (CR) the learned reflexive response to a previously neutral stimulus (dogs salivation from sound of bell from example) Stimulus generalization when stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus also elicit the conditioned response, even though they have never been paired with the unconditioned stimulus Stimulus discrimination when a particular conditioned response is made to one stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli Pavlov to Watson Ivan Pavlov discovered and investigated classical conditioning (studied dog example) John B. Watson refined psychology as the scientific study of behavior (founded Behaviorism) o Behaviorism School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning o Believed that virtually all human behavior is a result of conditioning and learning, due to past experience and environmental influences o Classically conditioned emotional reactions Example Show white rat to a child and he doesn’t respond, make a loud noise and the child gets scared and cries. Pair the white rat with the loud noise and the child learns a fear of white rats because the child associates it with the scary loud noise Contemporary views of classical conditioning Cognitive aspects o Reliable signal associating an action with the prediction of what will happen next (flashing lights at train tracks means the train is coming) For learning to occur, the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts the presentations of unconditioned stimulus o Unreliable signal when something has no relation to predicting what could happen next (train tracks in a different location with broken lights would mean if the flashing lights occur they mean nothing) Evolutionary aspects o Biological predispositions to learn o Both the physical characteristics and the natural behavior patterns of any species have been shaped by evolution to maximize adaptation to the environment o Taste aversion a classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food The study contributed to a new awareness of the importance of the organisms natural behavior patterns Operant conditioning Explains learning as a process in which behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences BF Skinner searched for the “lawful processes” that would explain “order in behavior” o Coined term operant Operant an actively emitted (or voluntary) behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences Reinforcement occurs when a stimulus or an event follows an operant and increases the likelihood of the operant being repeated o Positive reinforcement a response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus o Negative reinforcement a response results in the removal of, avoidance of, or escape from a punishing stimulus Punishment a process in which a behavior is followed by an aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behaviors being repeated o By application (positive punishment) an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus Example an employee wears jeans to work (operant) and is reprimanded by his supervisor for dressing inappropriately (punishing stimulus) o By removal (negative punishment) an operant is followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus Example because he was flirting with another woman (operant), a guy gets dumped by his girlfriend (loss of reinforcing stimulus) Shaping and maintaining behavior o Shaping involves reinforcing successively closer approximations of a behavior until the correct behavior is displayed o Continuous reinforcement when every occurrence of a particular response is followed by a reinforcer o Partial reinforcement when the occurrence of a particular response is only sometimes followed by a reinforce Learned helplessness a phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior o Expectations of failure and learning to quit Observational learning Learning takes place through observing the actions of others Applications/implications o The effects of negative behaviors that are depicted in films and tv shows o The effects of media depictions of violence on behavior o The use of tv and radio dramas to promote social change and healthy behaviors
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