Honors Psych 101, Week 7
Honors Psych 101, Week 7 Psy 101
Popular in Psychology
Popular in Psychology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Neal on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 101 at Northern Arizona University taught by Alban in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychology at Northern Arizona University.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
10/11/2016 Motivation & Emotion Motivation: Needs or psychological desires that energize or direct behavior. Basic: Hunger, sleep, amorous. Criteria of a "fundamental motivation" Baumeister & Leary in 1995 wrote that it produces eﬀects readily under all but adverse conditions. Have aﬀective consequences. Direct cognitive processing. Elicit goal-orientated behavior designed to satisfy it. Lead to ill eﬀects (e.g. on health or adjustment) when thwarted. Tends to be universal in the sense of applying to all people. Not be derivative of other motivation. Inﬂuence a broad variety of behaviors. 5 Theories of Motivated Behavior Evolutionary Theory: early instinct theory, lets classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts, but naming a behavior does not explain it, and much human behavior is also aﬀected by psychological wants. This perspective's lasting contribution is that genes predispose species-typical behavior. Drive-Reduction Theory: Basic idea is that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates organisms to seek need satisfaction. There's discomfort in not having the need met.The physiological aim is homeostasis (a tendency to maintain a balanced/constant internal state ex: set point). To sustain life, certain substances and characteristics of the body must be kept within a restricted range, not too high or not too low. The case of D.W. Great craving of salt at 1, hospitalized at 3 1/2 for other symptoms, put on a standard diet, died, autopsy revealed he had deﬁcient adrenal glands, the salt craving was from a physiological need, "wisdom of the body." Incentive Theory: Motivated behavior extends beyond the physiological aim of drive-reduction. we are "pulled" into action by incentives - i.e. external stimuli that we have learned to associate with reinforcement. Some actions are intrinsically rewarding (things you enjoy). Other actions are the result of extrinsic motivation (not as fun, pursuit of goal usually). Optimal Arousal Theory: Also emphasizes that motivated behavior extends beyond drive-reduction. One excellent piece of evidence involves curiosity. animals often explore the world around them in the absence of any need- based one. "ﬂow" when we get lost in an activity, like its happening eﬀortlessly, we are just satisﬁed. There are diﬀerences in preferred level of arousal. Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" Theory: Abraham Maslow emphasizes the prioritizing of diverse needs. Basic needs before higher-level needs. Physiological needs → safety and security → love and belongingness needs →esteem needs→self-actualization. The Need to Belong Humans have a pervasive drive (motivation) to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and signiﬁcant interpersonal relationships -Baumeister & Leary 1995 p. 497. Satisfying this need involves two criteria: frequent interaction- theres a need for frequent, aﬀectively pleasant interactions with a few other people. persistent caring- these interactions must take place in the context of a temporally stable and enduring framework of aﬀective concern for each other's welfare. High belongingness is strongly associated with positive aﬀect, improved health (reduced stress & anxiety). Failed belongingness may be a major contributor in loneliness, stress, anxiety, depression, and suicide 10/06/2016 Learning Chapter Positive reinforcement: Something pleasant is oﬀered. Ex: dogs getting a treat. Negative reinforcement: Something unpleasant is being removed. Ex: studying for a test, removing anxiety. Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio: Based on number of responses. Interval: Based on time. Fixed: Consistent number of responses. Variable: Changing number of responses or time between reinforcers. Most resistant to extinction. Punishment= ↓ Unpleasant Behaviors Positive Punishment: Something unpleasant is introduced. Negative Punishment: Something pleasant is taken away. Review Reinforcements increase likelihood of behavior. Punishments decrease likelihood of behavior. Practical Application How might a parent deal with a child who throws a tantrum? Child development researchers try to extinguish negative punishments. Better to actively look for the things they should be doing by praising positive behavior. Skinner's Views Beyond Freedom and Dignity Is human freedom an illusion? If we are controlled by our environment, who should control the environment? When we deﬁne freedom, does it have to be action without consequences, or living in an environment that does have consequences? Team 2 Presentation-Learning Cognitive: New neuron connections and pathways in the brain. Behavioral: Learn from the behavior of others at diﬀerent points of your life. Modern era has spawned many new interdisciplinary developments. Edward Tolman (Latent Learning): Set up a maize, and had 2 groups, 1 had incentive, 2 had none, 1 all got it, 2 didn't without incentive. Observational Learning (Social Learning Theory): must have a model & limitations. Albert Bandura: Learning is based on watching others. Intentional & thought about. Models: Real at hand (real and close to you) Real but distant (real but no personal relationship) Fictional (not real) Symbolic (does not see action, but knows it happens) Edward Thorndyke: puzzle boxes with cats. Behaviors with reinforcement will be strengthened. Law of Eﬀect. Shaping: Linking several things together to get a more complex behavior.
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