Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes PSC 168
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Venegas on Tuesday October 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 168 at University of California - Davis taught by Eva Schepeler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/04/16
Monday, October 3, 2016 6:12 PM MAIN DATA COLLCTIONMETHODS IN CLINICALPRACTICE - Clinical (diagnostic) interview w/the client - Behavior observation ○ Do something about the triggers. - External Sources ○ ex. Psychiatric records, school records, legal records, interviews w/familymembers, teachers, etc; Sometimespeople are delusional and you need these outside sources. People w/psychopathicor sociopathic tendencies will be very confident and good at selling themselves/manipulatingpeople - Psychologicaltests - To be approved for disability. ○ Social workers ○ Counseling lvl. psychologists ○ MMPI's - Neurological Tests Brain imaging scans like PET, CT, fMRI; EEG ○ Used right now as a tool for research. Not quite affordable enough to use always, also can just throw them in and get a diagnostic. ○ Helps see where in brain neurons are firing. PSYCHOLOGICALTESTING 1. ProjectivePersonality Tests: Looselybased on psychodynamic(Freud) ie. Unconscious a. Subjects are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli while being unaware of the true purpose of the test. b. Projectivehypothesis: Subjects will project aspects of their own personality into their responses. i. (ex) Pre-occupiedw/sex you may see sexual organs, c. Most commonprojectivetests i. Rorschach Inkblot Test (1921) 1) Will be a blob, ask them "What could that be" 2) Record variance Examples:happy butterfly, disgusting butterfly half eaten, two separate things - one evil one good 3) Commentswill point at psychotic thought process. (see things that no one else will see) 4) Can find problems people are unaware of. 5) Structural summary helps show ways of interpreting test. (admissible in court) 6) Indicators for suicidality, OCD, etc; ii. TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) (Late 1930's) 1) Ambiguous photo, ask what the story is for each of the cards. Dramatic. What happened before? What's happening now? What will happen? a) Helps show what is on the persons mind 2) Never go WITH story, go with the theme of all the stories. a) All depressing, about winning, a conflict w/parents, etc. b) Focus on consistency. iii. Sentence Completion Test 1) Especially well-suited for children 2) Subject is asked to complete a list of sentence stems, such as: I like… I hate… I 2) Subject is asked to complete a list of sentence stems, such as: I like… I hate… I want… Men are… My mother is… My father is… iv. Draw-A-PersonTest 1) Ask them to "draw a person" a) Most will draw same sex. 2) Lack of body parts, confusion of front view or side view, 3) Size of characters v. House-Tree Person Test 1) Ask a kid to draw a house or tree, or all together. 2) Ask questions like "Who lives here?" "Are they happy in the house" "What is going on in the picture?" a) Encourages kids to talk about their life 3) Analysis takes into account: a) Size, Placementof figures on page, pencil pressure, line quality, amount of detail, erasures, distortionsand omissions. 2. Objective Personality tests - Called "Objective" because scoring procedures are objective a. The Most frequently administered "objective"personality inventoryis the MMPI2 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Interview i. 567 true/false questions ii. 10 clinical scales (ex. Depression,paranoia, hypomania, etc;) iii. Numerous sub-scales and indicators (ex. For ego strength, suicidality, etc;) iv. Validity scare (ex. Faking good, faking bad, random responding, etc;) 1) Ex. One question asks "are you sleeping well?" another asks "Is your sleeping bad?" And they answer "yes" or "no" on both, doesn't make sense. They're lying. 2) Lie scale may be high, under reporting is prominent, below normal for stress, etc = Faking Good. 3. Intelligence Tests a. WAIS-III 4. NeuropsychologicalTests a. Most frequently given neuropsychologicalscreening tests: i. Bender Gestalt test 1) Consists of 9 simple drawings on little cards. Present them one at a time to client. Ask them to copy them in exact size as original. In the end they should all fit on his piece of paper. 2) Anyone over age of 10 typically no problem unless impariments. 3) Types of errors to look for: a) Right hemispheric:Touching, overlapping, completing a figure, confusing dots and circles, shape (tendency to make things round instead of sharp), orientation (upside down, angled the wrong way, etc;) b) Frontal Lobe: Doesn't stop copying (many duplicate copies), planning ahead how to get it all on one page ii. Complex Figure Test 1) Requires planning on how to copy the complexdrawing. 2) Ask if they think it is accurate iii. Trail Making Test (Trails A and B) 1) A - Going from #1 -> #2 -> #3 -> #4 a) About memory.And how long it takes you to get from one place to the next b) Always be much faster than part B. 2) B -go from A -> 1 ->B -> 2 etc; a) See how long it takes. b) If brain impairment,then they may not even be able to finish. c) Can detect malingering. (faking) c) Can detect malingering. (faking) iv. Stroop Color Word Test 1) Tests for inhibition problems in folks w/neurologicalproblems or psychiatric conditions (chronic schizophrenia) 2) Name color of the ink of each word - not the word its self - as quickly as possible. DEFINITIONSOF ABNORMALITY - Deviance - Statistical difference from the "norm" ○ One way to look at abnormality ○ Sometimesdo things others don't. Creative, Eccentric, very bright and unusual. ○ Ex: Einstein. ○ Just being different isn't enough to call them mentally ill - Distress ○ Person is in agony. ○ Sometimesdon't admit it ○ Mania, for example, in distress but won't acknowledge it or agree. Often will protest getting help ○ Paranoia ○ Substance abusers ○ Narcissistic won't acknowledge it - Dysfunction:inability to unction everyday life ○ Can't go to work, Can't keep relationships, can't keep up w/personalhygiene. ○ Have trouble keeping things clean. ○ Could think they're being spied on, or food is being posioned - Danger - homicidal, psychopathic, suicidal. ○ A danger to them or others. ○ Only "D" where someonecan be hospitalized for. Suicidal or homicidal Hospitalization is usually 72-hours on watch. Very expensive (sometime2k a day) DSM-V: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Descriptiveorganizing scheme of mental disorders - Versions: DSM 91952);DSM-II (1968),DSM-III (1980),DSM-IV (1994),2000revision, DSM-V (2013) - In order to qualify as a DSM V "disorder" 1. A minimum number of specified symptomsfor each disorder have to be met i. Minimum duration of symptomsspecified for each disorder 1) 5 min. for depression 2. Minimum duration of symptomsspecified for each disorder i. Symptomscause either subjective distress or dysfunction ii. OR causes severe change in "normal" life. 3. Symptomsare not considered normal in individual's culture i. Talking about irrational stuff but it's commonin their culture = NOT delusional or schizo ii. Dress code (for example)is diff. in other cultures. Mental Disorders in the U.S.: - Leading cause of disability - One year prevalence of having mental disorder: 26% - Life time prevalence of having a mental disorder 46% - High "comorbidity"of mental disorders MOST COMMONMENTAL DISORDERS IN U.S.: - Anxiety disorder: 28.8% - Mood disorders: 20.8% - Substance abuse disorder: 14.6% - Substance abuse disorder: 14.6% Anxiety Disorders Monday, October 3, 2016 7:33 PM • Anxiety is the predominant symptom • Avoidance is almostalways present. ○ If you weren't avoiding it, you wouldn't be anxious ○ Reinforces the anxiety DSM-V lists: - Panic Disorder - Phobias - Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) *High comorbidityamong anxiety disorders and OCD PANICDISORDER: DSM-V criteria for "panic attack": • A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort,in which four (or more) of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within a few minutes. ○ Pounding heart or palpitations ○ Sweating ○ Trembling ○ Shortness of breath ○ Feeling of choking ○ Chest pain ○ Nausea ○ Feeling dizzy ○ Depersonalization (feeling detached from oneself) (floating) ○ Fear of going crazy (Control of body is taken away, can't think in control) ○ Fear of dying ○ Numbness Blood rushes to head, can't feel hands or legs. ○ Chills or hot flashes. DSM-V definition of Panic Disorder includes: ○ Repeated and unexpected panic attacks Might start restricting your daily tasks. Stop exercising. ○ Fear of recurring panic attacks or losing control Worry all the time. Start scanning body for any signs. ○ Avoidance pf situations associated with prior attacks ○ Symptomsmust have been present for at least 6 months ○ Symptomscause a significant distress or dysfunction NOTE: If Agoraphobia is present, it is coded as an additional diagnosis. Etymology"Panic": - Pan: Greek and Roman God of nature, the wild, often associated with sexuality and fertility. ○ Would usually go through the woods and jump on people. And have sex with them. Prevalence: - One year: 2.7% - Lifetimeprevalence: 5% Gender Ratio Gender Ratio - 5:2 (Female:Male) Onset - 15-35 years - Rarely before puberty Etiology of Panic Disorder - Often biologival predisposition (genetic. HypersensitiveNS, oversensitivelocus ceruleus) ○ Amygdala starts firing almost immediatelyto the locus ceruleus (fight or flight) ○ Anxiety spins in to a mental dysfunction - First panic attack may be triggered by street drugs, medications,medical condition, or trauma - Conditioning process ○ The more you give in (the moreyou "run" with it) the more it will happen Treatment of Panic Disorder EducationAbout - Panic attack is a normal "flight-fight" response
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